E3  D  1,2. The Passover. Two days before.
     E  3-6. Conspiracy of Chief Priests, Scribes, and Elders.
      F  6-13. The 2nd Anointing.
     E  14-16. Conspiracy of Judas Iscariot.
    D  17-35. The Passover. One day before.

29 A.D.

Matthew 26)

1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, (marking an epoch. As in 11:1; 13:53; 19:1. See Chronology of the week of Passover) He said to His disciples,
2 "You know that after two days takes place the feast of the passover, (Gr. pashsa) and the Son of man is delivered up for [the purpose of] to be crucified.

3 Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, to the court of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,
4 And consulted to the end that they might seize Jesus by guile, and kill Him.
5 But they said, "Not during the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the People."

F  G  6,7. The woman. Historic.
    H  i  8. Indignation.
        k  9. Reasoning.
    H  i  10. Reprehension.
        k  11. Reasoning.
   G  12,13. The woman. Prophetic.

6 Now when Jesus came to be in Bethany, (note this return to Bethany from Jerusalem after Hist 1st entry in Matt. 21:1-17, &c., and before His triumphal entry in Mark 11:1-10, Luke 19:29-38, and John 12:12-19.) in the house of Simon (showing this to be a 2nd anointing, later than that of John 12:2-8) the leper, (So called after his healing, as Matthew was still called "the tax-gatherer")
7 There came to Him a woman (unnamed. In the former anointing it was Mary.) having an alabaster flask of very precious ointment, and poured it upon His head, (in the former anointing, by Mary, it was His feet. See John 12:3-8) as He reclined [at table] at mealtime.

8 But when His disciples saw it, (in the former case it was Judas Iscariot) they had indignation, saying, "To what purpose is this waste?

9 For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor."

10 When Jesus got to know it, He said to them, "Why do you trouble the woman? for she has wrought an excellent work toward Me.

11 For you have the poor always with you; but Me you have not always.

12 For in that she has poured this ointment on My body, she did it for My embalming. (Cp. John 19:40)
13 Truly I say to you, Wheresoever the good news shall be proclaimed in the whole world, there shall also which this woman has done, be told for a memorial of her."

14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests,
15 And said to them, "What are you willing to give me, and I will deliver Him to you? And they placed for him [in the balance] (i.e. they weighed to him) thirty pieces of silver. (These were shekels of the Sanctuary. Worth about $20 by today's standards. This was the price of an ox which had gored a servant [Ex.21:32]. It was here destined for the purchase of sacrifice.)
16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray Him.

17 Now the first day (the eating of the Passover took place on the 14th of Nisan [April 3rd]. See Ex. 12:6,8,12. The 15th was the high sabbath, the 1st day of the feast. See v.2, Num. 28:17.) of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to Him,

F3  K1  -17-19. The preparation.
    K2  20-25. The Supper. Prediction. Betrayal.
    K3  26-29. The New Covenant.

K1  l  -17. Preparation. Inquiry.
     m  18. Command.
     m  19-. Obedience.
    l  -19. Preparation. Effected.

"Where will you be that we prepare for You to eat the passover?" (This question shows that the date was 14th of Nisan, April 3rd)

18 And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, 'My time is at hand; I will keep the passover with you with My disciples.' ' "

19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them;

and they made ready the passover.

K2  n  20,21. Prediction. Betrayal.
     o  22. Question of all.
      p  23. Answer.
    n  24 Prediction.
     o  25-. Question of one.
      p  -25. Answer.

20 Now when the evening was come, He sat down with the twelve. (Thus showing us that this could not be the Passover lamb, which must be eaten standing. See Ex. 12:11)
21 And as they did eat, (this had been preceded by John 13:1-30. It was the Passover feast, but not the Passover lamb, which followed it. See v.2) He said, "Truly I say to you, that one of you shall deliver Me up."

22 And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began each one of them (one after another) to say to Him, "Not I, is it, Lord?"

23 And He answered and said, "He that dipped his hand with Me in the dish, the same shall betray Me.

24 The Son of man goes as it stands written concerning Him: but woe to that man by means of whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born."

25 Then Judas, which betrayed Him, answered and said, "Not I, is it, Rabbi?

He said to him, "You yourself has said it".


  A figure of speech consists of a word of words used out of the ordinary sense, or order; just as we call a person dressed out of the ordinary manner or fashion a "figure": both attract our attention; and, in the case of words, the one and only object is in order to call a reader's attention to what is thus emphasized. For examples see the notes on Matt. 16:6; where, had the Lord said "the doctrine of the Pharisees is like leaven", that would have been the Fig. Simile. Had He said "the doctrine of the Pharisees is leaven", the Fig. in this case would have been Metaphor; by which, instead of saying one thing is like another, it is carried over (as the word Metaphor means), and states that the one thing is the other. But in Matt. 16:6, the Lord used another Figure altogether, viz. Hypocatastasis (from hupo = under, kata = down, and stasis = a stationing), which means putting one of the two words (which are necessary in the case of Simile and Metaphor) down underneath, i.e. out of sight, and thus implying it. He said, "beware of the leaven", thus implying the word "doctrine", which He really meant; and, by thus attracting the disciples' attention to His words, thereby emphasized them.

  In these three Figures we have a Positive, Comparative, and Superlative emphasis. The essence of Simile is resemblance; the essence of Metaphor is representation (as in the case of a portrait, which is representation of some person); the essence of Hypocatastasis is implication, where only one word is mentioned and another is implied.

  Through non-acquaintance with Figures of Speech every Figure is to-day called a "Metaphor". But this is not the case. A Metaphor is a special Figure different and distinct from all others.

  "This is My body" is the Figure Metaphor; and the Figure lies in the Verb "IS", which, as in this case always means "represents", and must always be so expressed. It can never mean "is changed into". Hence in the Figure Metaphor, the Verb "represents" can always be substituted for "is". For example:

"The field is (or represents) the world" (Matt. 13:38).
"The good seed are (represent) the sons of the kingdom" (Matt. 13:38).
"The reapers are (represent) angels" (Matt. 13:39).
"The odors are (represent) the prayers of the saints" (Rev. 5:8).
"The seven heads are (represent) seven mountains" (Rev. 17:9).
"This cup is (represents) the new covenant" (1Cor. 11:25).
"The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not (does it not represent) the blood of Christ?" (1Cor. 10:16).

  Furthermore, it is a fundamental law in Greek grammar, without exception, that the Article, Pronoun, and Adjective must agree in gender with the Noun to which they refer. For example, in Matt. 16:18, the Pronoun "this" is Feminine, and thus agrees with petra, which is also Feminine, and not with petros (Peter) which is Masculine.

  So here: the Pronoun "this" is Neuter, and cannot agree with artos ( = bread) because artos is Masculine. It must refer to what is Neuter; and this could only be the whole act of breaking the bread, which would be Neuter also; or to klasma, the broken piece (which is also Neuter).

  In like manner, when He said (in v. 28) "this is my blood of the New Covenant"; "this", being Neuter, refers to poterion ( = cup) (*1) and not to oinos ( = wine), which is Masculine, and means :-- "This [cup] represents My blood of the New Covenant, which is poured out for many, for remission of sins".

  For, what was the Lord doing? He was making the New Covenant foretold in Jer. 31:31-34. If it were not made then, it can never be made at all (see Ap. 95), for no more has He blood to shed (Luke 24:39).

  Now, "blood" was shed, and sacrificially used, only in connection with two things, making of a covenant, and the making of atonement. In the former, the victim which made or ratified the covenant was slain and the body divided in two, the parties to the covenant passing between (see notes on Gen. 15:9-18. Jer. 34:18. Gal. 3:20. and Ap. 95). As long as the victim (the covenant maker) was alive the covenant could have no force. See notes on Heb. 9:16-22.

  At the last supper this New Covenant was made; and Peter's proclamation in Acts 2:38; 3:19-26; 5:31; and Paul's in 13:38; 17:30; 20:21; 26:20; were based upon it. Messiah had to be "cut off", that the Scriptures might be fulfilled (Acts 3:18). But that having been accomplished, and the sufferings having been endured, nothing stood in the way of the glory which should follow. "Repent ye THEREFORE and turn [to the Lord] that your sins may be blotted out", &c. The New Covenant which had been made had provided for that, as the Lord had said in Matt. 26:28, "for the remission of sins".

  In that last supper the Lord was not instituting anything with a view to the Secret (the "Mystery" to be yet revealed in the Prison Epistles); but was substituting bread and wine for the Paschal Lamb (the type being exhausted in the Antitype), because of the new meaning which the Passover should henceforth convey. It was to be the Memorial, not of the Exodus from Egypt, but of the Exodus which the Lord afterward accomplished in Jerusalem (Luke 9:31), according to the New Covenant made by His death.

  (*1) Poterion being put by Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the contents, for the "cup" itself could not be swallowed.

26 And as they were eating, Jesus took a hard biscuit, (which required to be broken) and blessed it, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this represents My body."
27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink you all of it;
28 For this represents My blood (no covenant could be made without the shedding of blood [Ex. 24:8. Heb. 9:20]; and no remission of sin without it [Lev. 17:11]) of the New Covenant, (this can be nothing else than that foretold in Jer. 31:31. If not made then, it can never now be made, for the Lord has no blood to shed [Luke 24:39]. This is the ground of the proclamation of "them that heard Him" [Heb. 2:3]. See acts 2:38, 3:19, &c. New to its quality and character. This is the 1st occ. in the N.T. It is an O.T. word, and must always conform to O.T. usage and translation. It has nothing to do with the later Greek usage. It should always be rendered "covenant". See Heb. 9:15-22, and see The new Testament in relation to the Bible as a whole) which is shed for many for the remission of sins. (See Acts 2:38; 3:19)
29 But I say to you, I will by no means drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom." (This might have been soon verified, had the nation repented at the proclamation of Peter [Acts 3:19-26])

G3  q  30-32. The Stumbling of all.
     r  33. The disclaimer of Peter.
    q  34. The Denial of one.
     r  35. The disclaimer of all.

30 And when they had sung an Psalm, (probably the 2nd part of "the great Hallelujah", Ps. 115, 116, 117, 118) they went out into the mount of Olives. (This was another proof that it was not the Passover lamb. Cp. Ex. 12:22)
31 Then said Jesus to them, "All you shall stumble because of Me during this very night: for it stands written, 'I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. (Ref. to Zech. 13:7)
32 But after I am risen again, 'I will go before you into Galilee.'

33 But Peter answered and said to Him, "Even if all men shall be offended because of You, yet will I never be offended."

34 Jesus said to him, 'Truly I say to you, That this night, before a cock crow, (i.e. one of other cocks) you will deny Me three times. (i.e. three denials and a cock-crow; then three more and a second cock-crow; not 3 cock-crows. This prophecy was uttered 3 times: [1] John 13:38; relating to fact, not time [2] Luke 22:34, in the supper room; [3] and last, Matt. 26:34 [Mark 14:20], on the Mount of Olives.)

35 Peter said to Him, "Even if it be necessary for me to die together with You, yet will I not deny You." Likewise said all the disciples also.

26:36-46. THE AGONY.
D  J  36-. Arrival.
    K  -36-38. Purpose. Stated.
    K  39-45. Purpose. Effected.
   J  46. Departure.

36 Then comes Jesus with them to a place called Gethsemane, (= oil-press. 4:1-11 and 36-46 here shows the correspondence between the Temptation in the Wilderness and the agony in the Garden. That both were an assault of Satan is shown in Luke 22:45, John 14:30, and by the fact that in each case angelic ministrations were given.) and said to the disciples,

Sit you here, while I go and pray yonder.
37 And he took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, (James and John) and began to be full of anguish and distress. (Jesus was distressed about something.)
38 Then He said to them, "My soul is crushed with anguish, even to death: tarry you here, and watch with Me." (It is important to differentiate between flesh and spirit. It was His soul that was sorrowful, and His instruction to the the 3 disciples was to watch.)

39 And He went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, "O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as You are willing." (Many people don't differentiate between flesh and spirit. They are taught and believe that Christ was sorrowful and distressed because His His flesh would soon be crucified. That isn't the case. The cup Jesus is praying to His Father about is the cup of God's wrath that Christ must pour out on the disobedient upon His return at the 2nd advent. His soul was sorrowful the disobedient.)
40 And He comes to the disciples, and finds them asleep, and says to Peter, "What, could you not watch with Me one hour? (This hour is a type for the hour of temptation written of in Revelation 17. This is the period of time in the future that antichrist will be worshiped by millions. Will you watch, or will you be deceived?)
41 Watch and pray, to the end that you enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." (The spirit is passionately ready to serve God, but the flesh is weak. The flesh is easily sidetracked. We must learn to strengthen our spirits to overrule our flesh. It is your spirit that is willing to serve God. It is the flesh that can cause distractions. Don't go to sleep on your watch.)
42 He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if this cup may not pass away from Me, except I drink it, Your will be done." (the very words of 6:10. There is nothing wrong with praying for the same thing more than once; however, if what we are praying for doesn't happen, we must be mature enough to realize that it wasn't God's will and move on.)
43 And He came and found them asleep again: for their eyes were heavy.
44 And He left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. (Try things 3 times. Don't be a quitter, if your 1st attempt fails. Pray about it and make necessary adjustments. If success evades you after 3 attempts, you know it wasn't God's will and move on to something else.)
45 Then comes he to His disciples, and says to them, "Sleep on afterwards, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, (see John 7:6) and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

46 Rise, let us be going: (to meet Judas; not to attempt flight) behold, he is at hand that does betray Me." (He that will betray and deceive many is at hand, that is to say the antichrist. Don't let him catch you sleeping. Be passionately ready to stand for the true Messiah.)

C  L1  26:47-27:34. The Betrayal.
   L2  27:35-54. The Crucifixion.
   L3  28:1-15. The Resurrection.

26:47-27:54. THE BETRAYAL.
L1  M  N  P  26:47-56. Judas. Treachery.
           Q  26:57. The Lord. Led to Caiaphas.
            R  26:58. Peter. Following.
             O  S  26:56-66. The Lord before Caiaphas.
                 T  26:67,68. Personal abuse.
    M  N    R  26:69-75. Peter. Denial.
           Q  27:1,2. The Lord delivered to Pilate.
          P  27:3-10. Judas. Remorse.
             O  S  27:11-26. The Lord before Pilate.
                 T  27:27-34. Personal abuse.

47 And while He yet spoke, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and elders of the people.

48 Now he that betrayed Him had given them a sign, saying, "Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is He: seize Him."
49 And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, "Hail, (an Aramaic salutation, like the Greek "peace") Rabbi;" and ostentatiously embraced Him.
50 And Jesus said to him, "Comrade, [Do that] for which you are here?" Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus and seized Him.
51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, (see Luke 22:36) and struck a bond-servant of the high priest's, (a special body-servant of the high-priest, by name "Malchus" [John 18:16]) and smote off the lobe of his ear.
52 Then said Jesus to him, "Put up again your sword into its place: (i.e. its sheath) for all they that take the sword (i.e. in their own responsibility [Rom. 13:4]) shall perish with the sword.
53 Think you that I am not able even now call upon My Father, and He shall instantly send me more than twelve legions of angels? (i.e. for Himself and the 11 apostles. A legion consisted of 6,000 [6,000 x 12 = 72,000]. Cp. 2 Kings 6:17)

54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must come to pass?"
55 In that same hour said Jesus to the multitudes, "Are you come out as against a robber with swords and clubs for to take me? I used to sit daily with you teaching in the temple, and you did not seize Me.
56 But all this is come to pass, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled."

Then all the disciples forsook Him, and fled.

57 And they that had seized Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders had gathered together.

58 But Peter followed Him from afar even to the high priest's palace, and went within [the court], and sat with the officers, to see the end.

S  W  59-61. False witnesses. Sought.
    X  62-64. Examination.
   W  65-66-. False witnesses. Superseded.
    X  -66. Condemnation.

59 Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the Sanhedrin, were seeking false witness against Jesus, so they might put Him to death;
60 But found not [any]: yes, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. But at the last came two false witnesses,
61 And said, "This fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the Sanctuary of God, and to build it within three days.' " (This was false. He said "Destroy you". The false witnesses helped to fulfill it.)

62 And the high priest arose, and said to Him, "Answer You nothing? what is it which these witness against You?

26:62-64. EXAMINATION.
X  s  62. Question.
    t  63-. Silence.
   s  -63. Adjuration.
    t  64. Condemnation.

63 But Jesus continue holding His peace,

And the high priest answered and said to Him, "I put You on Your oath by the living God, that You tell us if You be Messiah, (throwing no doubt on the assumption) the Son of God."

64 Jesus says to him, "You yourself has said it: moreover I say to you, Later shall you see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming upon the clouds of the heavens." (Quoted from Ps. 110:1)

65 Then the high priest tore his robe, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now you have heard His blasphemy.
66 What think you?"

They answered and said, "He is deserving of death."

67 Then did they spit on to His face, and slapped Him; and others smote Him with the palms of their hands,
68 Saying, "Divine to us, (refers to the past, not the future) You Christ, Who is he that smote You?"

69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the palace: and one damsel (because another is to be mentioned [v.74]) came to him, saying, "You also was with Jesus of Galilee."

26:69-75. PETER. DENIAL.
R  Y1  69-74-. Peter. 3 denials.
     Z1  -74. A cock crowing.
   Y2  75-. Peter. Denial. Remembered.
     Z2  -75-. A cock crowing. (The word of the Lord.)
   Y3  -75-. Peter. Repentance.

26:69-74-. PETER. 3 DENIALS.
Y1  u1  69. 1st challenge. A maid.
      v1  70. 1st denial.
    u2  71. 2nd challenge. Another (maid).
      v2  72. 2nd denial.
    u3  73. 3rd challenge. Bystanders.
      v3  74-. 3rd denial.

70 But he denied before them all, saying, "I know not what you say." (see v.34)

71 And when he was gone out into the porch, (to avoid further questioning) another maid saw him, and said to them that were there, "This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth."

72 And again he denied with an oath, "I do not know the man." (not even His name)

73 And after a while came to him they that stood by, and said to Peter, "Surely you also are one of them; for your speech betrays you."

74 Then began he to curse (i.e. to call down curses upon himself if what he said was not true) and to swear, saying, "I know not the man."

And immediately a cock crew.

75 And Peter remembered the saying of Jesus, Who had said to him,

"Before the cock crow, you shall deny Me three times."

And he went out, and wept bitterly.

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