THE REVELATION. The Structure of the Book as a Whole.

A 1. Introduction.

 B 2,3. The People on the Earth.

   C I  D1  4,5. In Heaven. (The Throne, The Book, and the Lamb.)

          E1  6:1-7:8.On Earth.(The Six Seals and 144,000.)

     II  D2  7:9-8:6. In Heaven. (The Great Multitude and the Seventh Seal.)

          E2  8:7-11:14. On Earth. (The Six Trumpets.)

    III  D3  11:15-19-. In Heaven.(The Seventh Trumpet.)

          E3  11:-19. On Earth. (The Earthquake &c.)

     IV  D4 12:1-12. In Heaven. (Woman, Child, and Dragon.)

          E4  12:13-13:18.On Earth.(The Dragon and Two Beasts.)

      V  D5 14:1-5. In Heaven. (The Lamb and the 144,00.)

          E5  14:6-20. On Earth. (The Six Angels.)

     VI  D6 15:1-8. In Heaven.(The Seven Vial Angels.)

          E6  16:1-18:24. On Earth.(The Seven Vials.)

    VII  D7 19:1-16. In Heaven.(The Marriage of the Lamb &c.)

          E7  19:17-20:15. On Earth.(The Final Five Judgments.)

  B  21:1-22:5. The People on the New Earth

A  22:6-21. Conclusion.

(The Structures in the Notes are taken from Dr. E. W. Bullinger's comprehensive work, The Apocalypse, but as not all in that volume are here given, the lettering is not consecutive throughout. This, however, does not interfere with the study of the Structure presented.)


  1. The Lord Jesus Christ is the one great Subject of the Word of God (cp. Luke 24:27; John 5:39), being the promised "Seed" of the woman (Gen. 3:15). He is therefore the Master-key to Divine revelation of the Word. The whole Bible is about Him directly or indirectly, and as everything centers in and around Him, apart from Him it cannot be understood.

This is set forth in the foregoing Structure, from which we see the Genesis and Revelation, "the first" and "the last" books of the Bible, are inseparably linked together. Genesis is "the beginning" an Revelation the ending of the Written Word, even as the Lord, the Incarnate Word, spoke of Himself (cp. 21:6; 22:13). Revelation is the compliment of Genesis. Either without the other would be unintelligible. Genesis 1-2 finds its correspondence in Rev.21-22.

Without the first chapters of Genesis, Revelation would be an insoluble riddle, as indeed it is to those who treat the record of "the Creation" and the "Fall" as "myths" (see 2 Tim. 4:4). Without the last chapters of the Revelation "the Book" would be a hopeless and heart-breaking record of the failure and doom of the Adamic race.

The Bible may be likened to a beautiful and complex girdle or belt, with a corresponding connecting clasp on each end, one the compliment of the other. Do away with either, the girdle is useless, as a girdle. So here, Genesis and Revelation are the two clasps of the Divine Word, which link together and enclose between them in "perfection and beauty" and harmony the whole of Scripture in which God has been pleased to reveal His "Eternal Purpose".

  2. Its Scope, &c. The key to unlock the meaning and scope of the book is found in 1:10. "The Lord's day" =THE DAY OF THE LORD (Jehovah). (See Isa.2:12.) John was not in "a state of spiritual exaltation" or any particular Sunday at Patmos, as the result of which "he saw visions and dreaded dreams". But, as we are told, "I came to be (or found myself) by the Spirit in the day of the Lord" (cp. Ezek. 1:1; 8:3, &c.). He is then shown, and both sees and hears (22:8), the things he records.

"The day of the Lord" being yet future, it follows that the whole book must concern the things belonging to "that day", and consequently is wholly prophecy. Though partial adumbration of judgment may be traced in connection with affairs of past history, yet the significant, solemn warning here (1:10) that the "judgments" in Revelation relate to the day of the lord, "the day of vengeance" (cp.Isa. 61:2; 63:4, &c.), makes it clear that the book concerns the future, and the day of unveiling (the Apocalypse) of the great "King of kings and Lord of lords".

Its scope is further shown by its place in the Canon. The order of the separate books of the N.T. varies, but they are always formed in four groups that never vary chronologically.

The Gospels contain the prophecies of the great tribulation: Revelation describes it. Between, come the Scriptures of the intermediate period, Acts and the Epistles. Chronologically and canonically, Revelation follows after the Epistles, though logically in God's purpose (Eph.3:11) it follows the Gospels. Therefore we see the scope embraces the wind-up of all the affairs of time; it records the end of prophecy, the end of "the secret of God" (10:7), the end of all "enmity toward God", and the dawn of the "ages of the ages".

  3. Its Hebrew Character. The language of the book is Greek: its thoughts and idioms are Hebrew. This links it to the O.T., and shows that it great purpose is to declare God's final dealings with the Jew and the Gentile as such; All the imagery of the book, Temple, Tabernacle, &c., belongs to Israel.

Again, In Matthew (the Hebrew Gospel) are some 92 quotations from and references to the O.T. In Hebrews there are 102. In Revelation are found no fewer than 285. This emphatically stamps its close connection with the O.T. and Israel; and equally stamps the latest utterances of "modern scholarship", viz. that "whatever view may be taken of the indebtedness to Jewish source, there can be no doubt that he (the writer) has produced a book which taken as a whole is profoundly Christian", as being the dicta of men who, wittingly or unwittingly, are blind to this fundamental fact of Revelation.

The Titles of Christ further attest its Hebrew character:

(i) "The Son of Man" (1:13; 14:14). Never found in the Pauline Epistles to the "churches".

(ii) "The Almighty" (1:8; &c.).

(iii) "The Lord God" (3:8 and see 22:6). Cp. this title with Gen. 2:4-3:24 in connection with "paradise".

(iv) "The First and the Last" (1:11,17; 2:8; 22:13). Never associated with "the church which is His body".

  (v) "The Prince of the kings of the earth" (1:5). Never used in connection with "the church".

(vi) "Who is to come" (=The Coming One), 1:4, &c. Occ. 16 times in the Gospels, Acts, Hebrews (10:37); 3 times in Revelation, and nowhere else.

(vii) "The Living One" (1:18). A title only found in Daniel (4:34; 12:7) and 6 times in this book. Thus linking Daniel and Revelation in a very special manner.

  4. The "BRIDE" and the "WIFE" of 21:9 must not be confused with the "wife" of 19:7. The latter is Israel and called out from among the nations for blessing in "the Land"; the earthly consort of "the Great King" (cp. Ps. 45; Jer. 3:14). This "wife" (19:7) is connected with the Millennial Jerusalem which, with the rest of the earth (age) "that now" is, will pass away, and give place to the new earth (age) with the new Jerusalem, succeeding and replacing the former. "The bride, the Lamb's wife" of 21:9, is still of Israel, but the Israel of the "heavenly country" and "the city with the foundations" for which they "looked" (Heb. 11:13-16); the "Jerusalem above" of Gal. 4:26. Hence the significance of the term "bride" (numphe) in 21:9.

The Israel of 19:7 is not spoken of as a bride (numphe), because she has become wife (gune. Cp. the "married to you"= am become your husband (consummation), of Jer. 3:14, the result of the restoration there promised. Here (21:9) the term "bride" indicates clearly that the betrothal has taken place and that the marriage will be consummated when the bride shall have come down out of heaven. John sees her coming down (pres. part.),21:10.

The loose way in which we speak of a "bride" as not only a contracting party at the time of the marriage ceremony, but also of her after she has become wife (gune, is responsible for much confusion as to the "wife" of 19:7 and the bride-wife of 21:9. Strictly speaking, "bride" is to be applied only to a betrothed virgin (Gr. parthenos= Heb. bethulah), when the marriage (legal) ceremony takes place. Directly after, she ceases to be "bride", and has become (legally) "wife", although from the forensic point of view consummation of the marriage may be delayed (cp. Matt.1:25).

According to the Mosaic Law, a betrothed maid (Heb. bethulah) was legally a wife ('ishshah). (cp. Matt. 1:18,20 with Deut. 22:23,24); hence Joseph's trouble and temptation (see Matt. 1:20). a careful study of the term in Matt. 1:18-25 will afford a clue to a cleaver understanding of the term "bride" and the two "wive" of Rev. 19:7; 21:9 than volumes of commentary.

If the earthly millennial metropolis is real, so is this also, for both are spoken of in the same terms. And if the laying of "the stones with fair colors" and "your foundations with sapphires" (Isa.54:11) is spoken of the day when God is to be called "the God of the whole earth (see v.5), it must refer to the time of Isa.65:17; 66:22 and Rev.21:1. Moreover, laying foundations implies a solid substratum on which to lay them, i.e. earth. Foundations are of no use to a city "suspended" in the air!

The same argument applies also to the "tree of life" and the "water of life". If the "river" and "trees for meat" of Ezek.47:1-12 are real and literal, so also are the "tree" and the "water" of life here. Again, both are spoken of in identical terms. There is no more room for "imagery" in the one case than the other. The "tree of life" lost in the paradise of Genesis is here seen restored to the whole earth in the day when "the God of the whole earth" will "tabernacle" with men, (and be) "their God" (Rev. 21:3). There is no place for "symbolism" in either case.

  5. The more important Figures of Speech are noted. These will supply helpful keys where symbolism in not Divinely explained or indicated, and will enable the student to judge whether Revelation is purely Johannine "symbolic imagery", as some affirm, and a "legitimate appeal to Christian imagination"; or whether the book is, as it claims to be, a deliberate setting forth prophetically (far seeing) of the actual scenes and events with which God declares that His purposes concerning the heaven and the earth shall be consummated.

  6. Numbers hold a prominent and significant place in Revelation. These in order are:-2 (occ. eleven times); 3 (eleven); 3 1/2 (twice); 4 (thirty); 5 (three); 6 (twice, including 13:18); 7 (fifty-four); 10 (nine); 1 (twenty-two); 24 (seven); 42 (twice); 144 (four); 666 (once); 1,000 (nine); 1,260 (twice); 1,600 (once); 7,000 (once); 12,000 (thirteen); 144,000 (three); 100,000,000 (once, 5:11); 200,000,000 (once, 9:16). twenty-one in all (3 X 7 = 21. See Spiritual Significance of Numbers, below).

  Seven is thus seen to be the predominant number, occurring fifty-four times (3 X 3 X 3 X 2=54.) Twelve comes next- twenty-two occ. Seven, ten, and twelve, with their multiples, run throughout the book. In te Notes attention is called to other numbers of great significance. The student will thus be enabled to work out or himself many problems connected with the question of numbers in Scripture. Some examples are here given of word occurrences.

  6 times;(torment), theion (brimstone):
  7 times; abussos (bottomless pit), axios (worthy), basileuo (reign), etoimazo (make ready), makarios (blessed), propheteia (prophecy), semeion (sign, &c.), hupomene (patience), charagma (mark), Christos:
  8 times; Amen, thusiasterion (altar), planao (decieve),(seal), stephanos (crown), nux (night):
  9 times; deka (ten), kainos (new), krino (judge), marturia (testimony), pantokrator (Almighty), polemos (battle, &c.):
  10 times; alethinos (true), eikon (image), thumos (wrath), keras (horn), prosopon (face), hora (hour), salpizo (to sound):
  12 times; dunamis (strength, power), phiale (vial):
  14 times; aster (star), Iesous, doulos (servant); &c.

The word arnion (lamb) occ.29 times ("the Lamb" 28=4 sevens: the other occ. 13:11). Elsewhere only in John 21:15. Hagios (holy) occ. 26 times according to the texts, which omit 15:3 and 22:6, and add 22:21; otherwise 27 time (3 X 9 or 3 X 3 X 3): doxa (glory) occ. 17 times (10 + 7): eulogia (blessing and ascription) 3 times; ethnos (nations) 23 times; nikao (overcome) 17 times; drakon (dragon) 13 times: plege (plague, &c.) occ. 16 times (4 X 4).

Phrases occ. frequently, e.g. (i) he that has an ear 7 times; if any man has an ear occ. once: (ii) third part, 16 times: (iii) the kings of the earth, 9 times.

  7. Conclusion. The "tree of life" (22:2) and the "water of life" (vv.1,17) are seen to be the great central subjects of the new earth (age). No longer will there be any "curse" (v.3). In place of the "Fall" we have restoration. Instead of expulsion-"lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever" (Gen. 3:22)-is the gracious invitation to those who "have the right to the tree of life" (v.22), "Come, whosoever desires, and let him take the water of life freely" (v.17).

  8. The Benediction (22:21) not only completes the correspondence of the Structure, but appropriately closes the whole of the Book of God. "Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ" (John 1:17). In this dispensation all is of grace. Grace now, glory hereafter (cp. Ps. 84:11). In the time coming, with which Revelation is concerned, grace will be given to "endure to the end" (Matt.24:13) to all slain under antiChrist (Satan) "for the Word of God" (6:9); and to all who "have the testimony of Jesus Christ" (12:17). "Grace, grace". ALL IS OF GRACE!


  1. Title of the Book. Man calls it "The Revelation of St. John the Divine". But its God-given title is in the first verse, "The Revelation of Jesus Christ",that is, The Unveiling, Revealing, and Presentation to earth and heaven of the Lord Jesus Christ (Messiah) as "KING of kings and LORD of lords".   It is spoken of as:

  (a) "The word of God" (1:2), in the sense in which the term occurs in the Old Testament (cp. I Chron. 17:3. Jer. 1:4,13. Ezek. 1:3. Joel 1:1; &c.):
  (b) "This prophecy" (1:3): therefore a prophetic message. The "blessing" here promised makes it clear that from this verse (and not4:1, as many suppose) to the end the book concerns thing yet future:
  (c) "The testimony of Jesus Christ" (1:2,9). Either as testimony to Him as the Coming One(Genitive of the Object): or, the testimony He bore on earth (Gen. of the Subject); probably both.

  2. Authorship. The testimony of Melito, bishop of Sardis (c. 170), quoted by Eusebius; Iranaeus (c. 180); the Muratorian Canon fragment (c. 200); Clement of Alexandrea (c. 200); Tertullian (c.220); Origen (c. 233); Hippolytus, bishop of Pontus (c. 200); &c., may fairly be accepted as to the writer being John the "beloved disciple" and apostle, as against the claims of a supposed John, "an Elder (cp. Peter's eldership, I Peter. 5:1) resident in Asia", who is hailed by "the majority of modern critics" as being the author of the Johannine letters (see Introductory Notes to I John) and the Revelation.

  3. Date of Writing. This by almost unanimous consent of the early Church writers is ascribed to the close of the reign of Emperor Domitian; about 96 A.D. At the time of the so-called "Second General Persecution" of the "Christians".

  4. To Whom it was originally sent is unknown. We have no clue, and therefore all speculations on the subject are valueless.

  The Book of Revelation is written to the 7 Churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. While these Churches no longer exists, the letter is directed at/to all the Churches of today around the world. 7 in Biblical numerics denotes spiritual perfection.


  Numbers are used in Scripture, not merely as in Nature, with supernatural design, but with spiritual significance, which may be summarized as follows*:-

  ONE. Denotes unity,and commencement. The first occurrences of words or utterances denote their essential significance, interpretation. Words that occur only once, in the originals, are emphatic and important. First day, Light.

  TWO. Denotes difference. If two different persons agree in testimony it is conclusive. Otherwise two implies opposition, enmity, and division, as was the work of the Second day. Compare the use of the word "double" applied to "heart", "tongue", "mind", &c.

  THREE. Denotes completeness, as three lines complete a plane figure. Hence, Three is significant of Divine perfection and completeness. The Third day completes the fundamentals of creation-work. The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth day are counterparts and repetition of the First, Second, and Third, and correspond respectively. The number, three,includes resurrection also; for on the Third day the earth rose up out of the deep, and fruit rose up out of the earth.

  FOUR. Denotes creative works (3+1), and always has reference to the material creation, as pertaining to the earth, and things "under the sun",and things terrestrial.

  FIVE. Denotes Divine grace. It is 4 + 1. It is God adding His gifts and blessings to the works of His hands. The Hebrew Ha'aretz (the earth), by "Gematria" (i.e. the addition of the numerical value of the letters together) is a multiple of four, while Hashamayim (the heavens) is a multiple of five. The Gematria of charis, the Greek for Grace, is also a multiple of five. It is the leading factor in the Tabernacle measurements.

  SIX. Denotes the human number. Man was created on the sixth day; and this first occurrence of the number makes it (and all multiples of it) the hall-mark of all connected with man. He works six days. The hours of his day are a multiple of six. Athaliah usurped the throne of Judah six years. The great men who have stood out in defiance of God (Goliath and Nebuchadnezzar and Antichrist [who is Satan]) are all emphatically marked by this number.

  SEVEN. Denotes spiritual perfection. It is the number or hall-mark of the Holy Spirit's work. He is the Author of God's Word, and seven is stamped on it as the water-mark is seen in the manufacture of paper. He is the Author and Giver of life.; and seven is the number which regulates every period of Incubation and Gestation, in insects, birds, animals, and man.

  EIGHT. Denotes resurrection, regeneration; a new beginning or commencement. The eighth is a new first.Hence the octave in music, color, days of the week, &c. It is the number that has to do with the Lord, Who rose on the eighth, or new "first-day". This is, therefore, the Dominical number. By Gematria (see #5), Jesus makes the number 888. It, or its multiple is impressed on all that has to do with the Lord's Names, the Lord's People, and the Lord's works.

  NINE. Denotes Finality of judgment. It is 3 X 3, the product of Divine completeness. The number nine, and its factors or multiples, is seen in all cases whenjudgment is the subject.

  TEN. Denotes Ordinal perfection. Another new first; after the ninth digit, when numeration begins anew.

  ELEVEN. Denotes disorder, disorganization, because it is one short of the number twelve (see below).

  TWELVE. Denotes Governmental perfection. It is the number or factor of all numbers connected with government: whether by Tribes or Apostles, or in measurement of time, or in things which have to do with government in the heavens and the earth.

  THIRTEEN. Denotes rebellion, apostasy, defection, disintegration, revolution, &c. The first occurrence fixes this (Gen.14:4); and the second confirms it (Gen.17:25). It, and its multiples, are seen in all numbers, and in the Gematria (see #5) of all names and passages that are associated with rebellion, &c.

  SEVENTEEN. Denotes a combination of spirit and order (10 + 7). It is the seventh prime number (as 13 is the sixth prime number).

Other numbers follow the laws which govern the smaller numbers, as being their factors, sums, products or multiples. e.g. 24 is 12 X 2, a higher form of 12.

    25=5 X 5. Grace intensified.
    27=3 X 3 X 3. Divinity intensified.
    28=7 X 4. Spiritual perfection in connection with the earth.
    30=3 X 10. Divine perfection, applied to order.
  40=10 X 4. Divine order applied to earthly things. Hence, the number of probation.
  The four perfect number, 3, 7, 10, and 12, have for their product the remarkable number 2,520 (From the time of The 10 Northern Tribes of Israel leaving the Assyrian captivity to the signing of the Declaration of Independence of 1776=2,520 years! a coincidence? I think not.). It is the Least Common Multiple of the ten digits governing all numeration; and can, therefore, be divided by each of the nine digits, without a remainder. It is the number of chronological perfection (7 X 360). Oh How great and wonderful the workings of our heavenly Father!
* The whole subject may be studied in Dr. Bullinger's work on Numbers in Scripture (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode).


written approx. 96 A.D., to/for the 7 churches

Revelation 1)

1: The Revelation (= unveiling, Gr. apokalupsis, from where our "Apocalypse" comes from) of Jesus Christ (Yahshua Messiah = Yahaveh's Savior The Anointed One), which God gave to Him, to point out to His servants things which are necessary with speed to come to pass (see Dan.2:29 [Sept.]); and He having sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John,
2: Who bare witness of the Word of God (thus a direct prophetic communication, as 1 Sam.9:27. 1 Kings 12:22. 1 Chron. 17:3. Yet cp. v.9; 6:9; 19:13; 20:4), and of the witness of Jesus Christ, and of whatsoever things that he saw (hears and understood, not merely "heard" but saw in vision).
3: Happy is he that reads, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it: for the time is at hand.

4: John to the seven churches (7 = Spiritual perfection, completeness in Biblical numerics) which are in Asia: Grace be to you, and peace, from Him Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come; and from the seven Spirits (see 5:12) which are before His throne;
5: And from Jesus Christ, Who is the faithful Witness, and the First Begotten of the dead (= hoi nekroi, which denotes dead bodies, or corpses or carcasses in the grave, apart from the personality they once had. O.T. idiom also), and the Ruler of kings of the earth (earth = ethnos, all the ethnic peoples). To Him that loved us, and loosed us from our sins by His own blood (see Heb. 2:14),
6: And has made us to be a kingdom and to be priests to God and His Father; to Him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Even the Amen (see 3:14)(see 3:14).
7: Behold, He comes (as He left) with the clouds; and every eye shall see Him (at the 7th trump), and they also which pierced Him: and all tribes of the earth shall wail because of Him (Why? because most will have been deceived by the antichrist = Satan himself defacto). Yes, even the Amen.
8: "I am The Alpha and Omega (= 1-8. #1 denotes unity, commencement. #8 denotes new beginnings in biblical numerics), says the LORD, Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come, The Almighty."
9: I John, your brother, and partaker in tribulation, and kingdom and patience of Jesus, was in the isle that is called Patmos (an island [modern Patino] in the Aegean, about 30 miles S.W. of Samos), the Word of God and for the testimony of Jesus (nothing to indicate John had been "banished").
10: I was in the Spirit in the Lord's day (John taken to the 1,000 year or last day [see 2 Pet.3:8] of this dispensation. Not Sunday), and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet (in O.T. connected with war and the day of the Lord. See Zeph. 1:14-16),
11: Saying, "I am The Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and what you see, write in this book (= scroll), and send it to the seven churches; to Ephesus, and to Smyna, and to Pergamos, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."
12: And I turned to see the voice (the Speaker) that was speaking with me. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands (see v.20);
13: And in the midst of the seven lampstands one like to the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the breasts with a golden girdle.
14: And His head and His hair were white as wool, as white as snow; and is eyes were as a flame of fire (= The Shikinah glory);
15: And His feet like fine brass, as glowing in a furnace; and His voice as the sound of many waters (= people, see 17:15).
16: And He having in His right hand seven stars: and out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword (= His tongue = the Truth): and His countenance was as the sun shines in his strength.
17: And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as one dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying, "Fear not; I am the First and the Last:
18: And the Living One, and yet became dead; and behold, Living am I for evermore; and have the keys of death and hell (= the grave).
19: Therefore write the things which you saw (as in v.2), and what they are (i.e. what they signify), and the things which shall be hereafter (Lit. after these things, i.e. the signs in the latter days. Not in John's day, but in the last generation, the generation of the fig tree, us. Began in 1948 when Israel became a nation again);
20: The secret symbol of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand (= the hand of His power), and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars represent (or signify) the angels of the seven churches: and the seven lampstands which you saw represent the seven churches. (No great mystery right? Yet people try to make a religion out of it!)

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