D1 Q1 1-3. Prayer. Turn us. Shine. R1 4-6. Representation. The People. Q2 7. Prayer. Turn us. Shine. R2 8-13. Representation. Q3 14,15. Prayer. Turn You. R3 Representation. Vine and People. Q4 17-19. Prayer. Turn us. Shine.
1 Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, (It is in the blessing of Joseph [Gen. 48:15 and 49:24] that God is spoken of as the Shepherd. And this is why Joseph is mentioned here. Joseph is put for Israel. The kingdom was not yet divided. The Psalms are not arranged chronologically according to date, but logically according to subject as required by the structure of the various books. The subject of Ps. 80 corresponds with Ps. 79, and does not follow Ps. 79 chronologically.)
You that lead Joseph like a flock;
You that dwells [enthroned above] the cherubims, shine forth.
2 Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh (they were descended from Rachel, and marched together in the rear [Num. 2:18-22]. As Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun marched in the van, the Ark [the symbol of God's presence] led them as a shepherd [78:13-16, 52-55. John 10:4,6]) stir up Your strength,
And come and save us.
3 Turn us again (not from captivity, but from idolatry to the true worship), O God, (Elohim. Note the order: v.3 "O God"; v.7, "O God of hosts"; v.19, "O Yehovah, God of hosts". This Divine order rebukes our own loose use of the Divine titles; and shows us the importance of noting their Divine use, not heeding modern hypothesis)
And cause Your face to shine; and we shall be saved.
4 O LORD God of hosts, (Yahaveh Elohim Zebaioth. See 1 Sam. 2. Not common in the Psalms, but occ. in 59:5 and 84:8.)
How long will You be angry against the prayer of Your people?
5 You feed them with the bread of tears;
And give them tears to drink in great measure.
6 You make us a strife to our neighbors:
And our enemies laugh among themselves.
7 Turn us again, O God of hosts,
And cause Your face to shine (cp. Num. 6:25); and we shall be saved.
8 You have brought a vine (cp. Isa. 5:1-7; 27:2-6; Jer. 2:21; 12:10. Verse 11 connects Joseph and Gen. 49:22) out of Egypt:
You have cast out the nations, and planted it.
9 You prepared room before it,
And did cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land.
10 The hills were covered with the shadow of it,
And the boughs thereof were like the mighty cedars.
11 She sent out her boughs to the sea, (I.e. the Mediterranean.)
And her roots to the river. (I.e. the Euphrates.)
12 Why have You then broken down her hedges,
So that all they which pass by the way do pluck her?
13 The boar out of the forest (Heb. miyya'ar, has the Ayin [ע] suspended. This is the 2nd of 4 such suspended letters [the other 2 being Job 38;13,15]. Read with this letter, the word means "forest"; without it, and with an Aleph [א] instead, it is miyy'ar, "river". The ancient Jewish interpreters took this suspended letter as noting that, when innocent, Israel would be assailed only by a power weak as a river animal; but, when guilty, it would be destroyed by a power as strong as a land animal. Until the Roman power arose [whose military ensign was a boar], it was understood as a 'river' [meaning Egypt]; but afterward the Sept., Chald., and Vulg. read "forest") does waste it,
And the wild beast of the field does devour it.
14 Return, we beseech You, O God of hosts:
[Once more] look down from heaven, and [once more] behold, and once more] visit this vine;
15 And [protect] the vineyard which Your right hand hats planted,
And the son of man that You made strong for Yourself.
16 It is burned with fire, it is cut down:
They perish at the rebuke of Your countenance.
17 Let Your hand be upon (or over) the man of Your right hand,
Upon the son of Adam (see Ezek. 2:1) whom You made strong for Yourself.
18 So will not we go back from You:
Make alive (restore, revive) us, and we will call upon Your name.
19 Turn us again, O LORD God of hosts,
Cause Your face to shine; and we shall be saved.
(Or, the autumn Feast of Tabernacles; or to the vine and the vineyard, which are the subjects of the Psalm.)