J H1 1-3. Introduction to psalm. H2 4-35. The psalm itself.
H1 J1 1,2. The wicked scattered. J2 3. The righteous made glad.
(It was written originally for the use of the going up of the Ark to Zion 951 B.C., a Sabbatical year [2 Sam. 6 and 1 Chron. 15; see Title of Ps. 24]; but, as it celebrates, among other things, the deliverance from Egypt, it was afterward appointed for public use at the Feast of the Passover.)
1 Let God arise (The Divine formula at the setting forth of the Ark. In the prayer [Num. 10:35], "Rise up Yahaveh"; but here, God [Elohim], because in connection with enemies), And let His enemies be scattered:
Let them also that hate Him flee before Him.
2 As smoke is driven about, so drive them away:
As wax melts before the fire,
So let the lawless perish at the presence of God.
3 But let the righteous be glad; let them rejoice before God:
Yes, let them exceedingly rejoice.
H2 K 4. Exhortation to praise. L N 5,6-. Mercies to His people. O -6. Enemies judged. P 7-10. Goings in the wilderness [9 lines]. Q 11-14. Yahaveh's word. History [4 verses]. M 15,16. Zion. Yahaveh's chosen dwelling-place. M 17,18. Zion. Yahaveh's chosen dwelling-place. L N 19,20. Mercies to His People. O 21-23. Enemies judged. P 24-27. Goings in the sanctuary [9 lines]. Q 28-31. God's command. Prophecy [4 verses]. K 32-35. Exhortation to praise [4 verses].
4 Sing to God,
Sing praises to His name:
Extol Him that rides upon the heavens
By His name YAH (cp. Ex. 15:2. The Divine Title enriches this Psalm), and rejoice before Him.
5 A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows,
Is God in His holy habitation. (I.e. which David had prepared for the Ark on Zion)
6 God brings absent ones home:
He brings out those which are bound with chains:
But rebellious ones have [ever] dwelt in a dry land.
P e 7. Goings in the wilderness. In the wilderness. f 8. Accompaniments. " g 9. Address. " h 10. Your congregation. " P e 24. Goings in the sanctuary. Into the sanctuary. f 25. Accompaniments. " g 26. Address. " h 27. The congregation. "
7 O God, when You went forth (i.e. from Egypt. The whole deliverance of Israel here is rehearsed. For use at Passover) before Your people,
When You did march through the wilderness; Selah: (Connecting the 1st going up of the Ark in the wilderness with its accompaniments.)
8 The earth shook,
The heavens also dropped (i.e. dropped moisture) at the presence of God:
Even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel.
9 You, O God, did send a plentiful rain,
Whereby You did confirm Your inheritance, when it was weary.
10 Your living ones (or host) have dwelt therein:
You, O God, have prepared of Your goodness for the poor.
11 The Lord gave the word:
Great was the host (or army) of the women (see v.25. This is the women's part. Cp. 1 Sam. 18:6,7. Cp. Deborah) that published it. (Always used of good news.)
12 Kings of armies did flee apace: (Verses 12,13 are the words of the women. Cp Judg. 5:19; 7:25)
And she that tarried at home (cp. 1 Sam. 30:21-25) divided the spoil.
13 Though you have lien among the pots (Heb. Dual, the two [or between the] brick-kilns: i.e. in Egypt, dirty places), yet shall you be (referring to the deliverance and subsequent glory.)
As the wings of a dove covered with silver,
And her feathers with yellow gold.
14 When the Almighty (Shaddai) scattered kings in it, (I.e. in His inheritance.)
It was as [when He scatters] snow in Salmon. (I.e. scatters by dispersing, as snow is melted away.)
15 The hill of God is as the mountain of Bashan;
An high hill as the mountain of Bashan. (See Ezek. 28:16.)
16 Why will you envy, O you high hills? (The other mountains are spoken of as envying Zion.)
The hill Yehovah desired for His abode; (Cp. 78:67,68; 132:13; and 1 Kings 11:32. Neh. 1:9.)
Yes, the LORD will dwell in it for ever.
17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels:
Yehovah among them (i.e. the angels and chariots) has come from Sinai into the Sanctuary.
18 You have gone up to the high mountain (i.e. Zion; referring to the Ark; but a type of Christ's ascension, as is clear from Eph. 4:8), You have led in procession captivity (put for captives) captive:
You have received [and given] gifts among men;
Yea, for the rebellious also (this is a foreshadowing of true grace), that THE LORD (Yah) God might dwell as in a tabernacle among them. (Heb. shakan. The Ark being the symbol of His presence. Cp. Ex. 25:8; 29:45,46. Josh. 18:1; 22:19. 1 Kings 6:13; 8:12,13. 2 Chron. 6:1,2. It is from the verb that we have Shekinah)
19 Blessed be the Lord, who daily loads us with benefits,
Even THE GOD (El) [Who is] our salvation. Selah. (Connecting the exhortation to bless Yahaveh with the reason for it [v.20])
20 He that is our GOD is the GOD of salvation;
And to GOD the Lord (Yahaveh Adonai) belong means of escape from death.
21 But God shall wound the head of His enemies,
And the hairy scalp of such an one as goes on still in his trespasses.
22 The Lord said, "I will surly bring again from Bashan,
I will surly bring My enemies again from the depths of the sea: (Wherever they may have fled, bring them again for judgment; the object being stated in the next verse.)
23 That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of your enemies, (Cp. Isa. 63:3,4. Rev. 19:13)
And the tongue of your dogs [may lick] the same."
24 They have seen Your progression (or processions. Cp. 2 Sam. 6. 1 Chron. 15:16-21, where the order is given as in vv.24,25 here), O God;
Even the progressions of my God, my King, into the sanctuary.
25 The singers went before, the players on instruments behind;
Between them were the damsels (i.e. the females of v.11) playing with drums. (See Ex. 15:21.)
26 Bless you God in the assemblies,
Even the Lord, [you that are] from the fountain of Israel. (I.e. the patriarch Abraham, or, Israel)
27 There is little Benjamin (the least of the tribes, and last on the jasper stone on Aaron's breastplate. Cp. Ex. 28:20. Jasper is the 1st stone in the foundations of Rev. 21:19) with their ruler,
The princes of Judah and their company,
The princes of Zebulun, and the princes of Naphtali.
28 Your God has commanded your strength [for defense]:
Strengthen, O God, the strength which You have wrought for us from Your temple.
29 Because of Your temple
To Jerusalem shall kings bring presents to You.
30 Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds,
The herd of mighty oxen (cp. Jer. 46:20,21), with the calves of the peoples,
Till every one submit himself with pieces of silver (i.e. tribute money):
He has scattered the people that delight in war.
31 Princes shall come out of Egypt;
Ethiopia (put for Ethiopians) shall soon stretch out her hands (put for bringing presents, as in v.29, or for prayer, or for pledging loyalty with an oath) to God.
32 Sing to God, you kingdoms of the earth;
O sing praises to the Lord; Selah: (Connecting the exhortation to praise with Him Who is to be praised, vv.33-35.)
33 To Him that rides upon the heavens of heavens, which were of old; (Cp. 2 Pet. 3:5,6: referring to "the world that then was".)
Lo, He does send out His voice, a voice of strength.
34 Ascribe you strength to God:
His excellency is over Israel,
And His strength is in the clouds.
35 O God, [To be feared] is God from His sanctuary:
The GOD (El) of Israel is He that gives strength and abundant power to His people.
Blessed be God.
(A poetic name for spring. Hence used at Passover, the spring festival. Originally written for the going up of the Ark to Zion; it was handed over to the chief Musician for public use.)