Z  B  5:1,2. Introduction.
    C  5:3-12. Characters. True Happiness.
     D  5:13-16. True Disciples.
      E  5:17-7:12. The Kingdom. Its Laws.
      E  7:13,14. The Kingdom. Entrance into it.
     D  7:15-23. False teachers.
    C  7:24-27. Characters. True wisdom.
   B  7:28,29. Conclusion.

27 A.D.
Matthew 5)

1 And seeing the multitudes, He went up into the mountain (well known and therefore unnamed, but corresponds with the Mount of Olives in the Structure of the Gospel as a whole): and when He was sit down (the posture of the Oriental teacher today), His disciples came to Him:
2 And he opened His mouth, and taught them, saying, (See the Structure above. The Structure is the commentary showing that this teaching is connected with the proclamation of the kingdom [v3.], and is to be interpreted by it. As the kingdom was rejected and is now in abeyance, so likewise this discourse is in abeyance with all its commands, &c., until "the gospel of the kingdom" is again proclaimed, to herald its drawing near. Parts of this address were repeated at different times and on different occasions. Luke nowhere professes to give the whole address in its chronological setting or entirety. Only some 30 separate verses are so repeated by Luke out of the 107 verses in Matthew. The later repetitions were given in "a plain" [Luke 6:17] and after the calling of the Twelve [Luke 6:13]; here the whole is given before the calling of the Twelve [Matt. 9:9]. These are marks of accuracy, not of "discrepancy" as alleged. Modern critics 1st assume that the 2 account are identical, and the say; "No one now expects to find chronological accuracy in the evangelical records"! For the relation of the Sermon on the Mount to Ps. 15 see notes there; and to the seven "woes" see ch. 23.)

C  a  3. Heirs to the Kingdom.
    b  4. Mourners. Reward for Mourners.
     c  5. Inheritance. Earthly.
      d  6. True righteousness.
      d  7. Fruits of righteousness.
     c  8. Inheritance. Heavenly.
    b  9. Peacemakers. Reward for Peacemakers.
   a 10-12. Heirs of the Kingdom.


The eight Beatitudes of Matt 5:3-12 are best understood and interpreted by the eight contrasts, or "Woes" of 23:13-33. The comparison shows that 5:10-12 form one (the eighth) Beatitude, having one subject (persecution) corresponding with the eighth "Woe" of 23:29-33.

They may be thus set out :--

"THE BEATITUDES" (5:3-12) 	               "THE WOES" (23:13-33)
1.  The kingdom opened to the poor (v. 3) 	1.  The kingdom shut (v. 13)
2.  Comfort for mourners (v. 4) 	        2.  Mourners distressed (v. 14)
3.  The meek inheriting the earth (v. 5) 	3.  Fanatics compassing the earth (v. 15)
4.  True righteousness sought by true           4.  False righteousness sought by 
     desire (v. 6)                                   casuistry (vv. 16-22)
5.  The merciful obtaining mercy (v. 7) 	5.  Mercy "omitted" and "left undone"     
     (vv. 23, 24)
6.  Purity within, and the vision of God  	6.  Purity without, uncleanness within.
     hereafter (v. 8)                                 "Blindness" (vv. 25, 26)
7.  Peacemakers, the sons of God (v. 9) 	7.  Hypocrites, and lawless (vv. 27, 28)
8.  The persecuted (vv. 10-12) 	                8.  The persecutors (vv. 29-33)
Beside these eight contrasts there is an internal correspondence of the principal thoughts, suggested by the combined series, and forming the Structure given in the note on Matt. 5:3, 4. It may be further noted that these Beatitudes rest on special passages in the Psalms : Matt. 5:3 (Ps. 40:17); 5:4 (Ps. 119:136); 5:5 (Ps. 37:11); 5:6 (Ps. 42:1, 2); 5:7 (Ps. 41:1); 5:8 (Ps. 24:4; 73:1); 5:9 (Ps. 133:1); 5:10 (Ps. 37; 39; 40).

3 "Blessed (= Happy, Gr. makarios [not eulogetos, which = blessed, and is only used of God [Mark 14:61. Luke 1:68. Rom. 1:25; 9:5. 2 Cor. 1:3; 11:31. Eph 1:3. 1 Pet. 1:3]. Representing the Heb. ashrey, occurs in 19 Psalms 26 times) are the poor in spirit (]see prov. 1:1] = poor in this world [as in Luke 6:20], in contrast with the promise of the kingdom): for theirs is the kingdom of heavens. (This is not poor as in lacking material possessions. Poor means humble in this verse. The humble inherit the King and His dominion. And, He owns everything.)

4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. (Those with eyes to see and ears to hear mourn for those that can't see the truth. Christ will comfort them.)

5 Blessed are the meek (cp. Ps. 37:11): for they shall inherit the earth. (or, the land)

6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst (idiom for strong a desire. Cp. 42:1,2; 119:103) after righteousness: for they shall be filled. (Righteousness is what is right. God's Word is what is right. If you hunger and thirst for His Word, you will be filled. That is a promise from your Father. Why hunger? Why thirst?)

7 Blessed are the compassionate (cp. Ps. 41:1): for they shall obtain mercy. (Not merely now, but in the manifestation of the kingdom, Jas. 2:13 [cp. Heb. 4:16; 8:12; 10:28)

8 Blessed are the pure in heart (cp. Ps. 24:4; 73:1): for they shall see God.

9 Blessed are the peacemakers (cp. Ps. 133:1): for they shall be called the sons of God.

10 Blessed are they which have been persecuted (cp. Pss. 37,39,40) on account of righteousness' sake (not otherwise): for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are you, when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of harmful thing against you falsely (this is another condition of the happiness of v.3), for My sake.
12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: because so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. (See 1 Pet. 4:13. Cp. Acts 16:25)

D  e  13. In the earth. Salt
    f  14-. The Light.
   e  -14. In the earth. A city.
    f  15,16. A Lamp.

13 You all (representing the kingdom) represent the salt of the earth: but if the salt has lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot by people. (expressing a real contingency; for, if the salt is stored on the bare earth, or is exposed to the air or sun, it does lose its savor and is fit for no place but the streets)

14 You are the light of the world.

A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.

15 Neither do men light a lamp, and put it under a bushel (= the measure: i.e. any measure there may happen to be in the house), but on a lamp-stand; and it gives light to all that are in the house.
16 Let your light thus shine before men, so that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

E  F  5:17-20. They fulfill the Law and the Prophets.
    G  5:21-48. They transcend the Laws of Moses.
    G  6:1-7:11. They excel the Traditions of the Elders.
   F  7:12. They fulfill the Law and the Prophets.

17 Deem not for a moment (a very necessary warning against making this mount another Sinai, and promulgating the laws of the kingdom proclaimed in and from 4:17) that I have come (implying former existence. Cp. 8:10) to pull down the law (1st of 15 ref. to the Law by Christ, 5 of these coupled with "Moses"), or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.
18 For verily (Gr. amen. Used only by the Lord. Same as Heb. 'amen, preserved in all languages. Should be so given at the beginning sentences. Always [except once] double in John; 25 times. See John 1:52) I say to you, Till (implying a possibility, not a certainty) the heaven (always in sing. when connected with the earth) and the earth pass, one jot. (= yod, the smallest Hebrew letter ['=Y], which the Massorites numbered 66,420) or one tittle (= the merest ornament. See Alleged "Corruption" of the Hebrew Text The English "tittle" is diminutive of title [Lat. titulus] = a small mark placed over a word for any purpose: e.g. to mark an abbreviation) shall in no way pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.
19 Every one that therefore shall break one of these shortest commandments (referring not to what men might thus distinguish, but to the difference made by the Lord between the whole Law and its minutiae), and shall teach people so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens.
20 For I say to you, That except your righteousness that shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall in no way enter into the kingdom of heaven.

G  H1  21-26. The Law of Murder. Com. 6.
   H2  27-32. The Law of Adultery. Com. 7.
   H3  33-37. The Law of Perjury. Com.3.
   H4  38-42. The Law of Retaliation. (Ex. 21:25. Lev. 24:20. Deut. 19:21.)
   H5  43-48. The Law of Love. (Lev. 19:18.)

21 You have heard (in the public reading of the Law) that it was said (opp. to "I say". Cp. 19:8,9, where the "I" is not emphatic [as it is here]. See Ex. 20:13. Deut. 5:17) by them of old time, Thou shall not murder; and whosoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment:
22 But I say to you, That whosoever is angry with his brother (an Israelite by nation and blood; while a neighbor was an Israelite by religion and worship [= a Proselyte]. Both distinct from the brethren. So the Talmud defines there) without a cause shall be liable to the judgment (the council of 3 in the local synagogue): and whosoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca' (not a contumelious epithet, but a contemptuous interjection, expressing the emotion of scorn of a disdainful mind, like Eng. "You!"), shall be liable to the council (the Sanhedrin, the supreme national court): but whosoever shall say, 'You fool,' (always = a wicked reprobate, destitute of all spiritual or Divine knowledge) shall be in danger to hell fire. (= the gehena of fire, from the valley of Hinnom, profaned by the fires of Moloch worship [2 Chron. 33:6], and defiled by Hezekiah. Also called "Tophet", Isa. 30:33. Here the refuse of Jerusalem was continually being burnt up by the perpetual fires [cp. Jer. 7:31-33. 2 Kings 23:10. Mark 9:48. Isa. 66:24])
23 Therefore if you offer your sacrifice up to the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you;
24 Leave (an unusual practice) there your gift before the altar, and go your way; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.
25 Be well-minded with your opponent [in a lawsuit] quickly, whiles you are in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer (here = tax collector. See Luke 12:58), and you be cast into prison.
26 Verily I say to you, You shall by no means come out there, till you have paid the last farthing. (a bronze coin worth about 1/2 cent, which shows it to be a case of debt.)

27 You have heard that it was said by them of old time, 'You shall not commit adultery:' (Quoted from Ex. 20:14. Deut. 5:18)
28 But I say to you, That every one that keeps looking on a married woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart.
29 And if your right eye (Figuratively. i.e. your choicest possession. Don't poke your eye's out, or cut your hand off!) causes you to stumble (morally]. Cp. 18:6. 1 Cor. 1:25), pluck it out, and cast it from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not that your whole body should be cast into hell.
30 And if your right hand (as above) cause you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not that your whole body should be cast into hell.
31 It has been said, 'Every one that shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:' (See Deut. 24:)
32 But I say to you, That every one that shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causes her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced commits adultery.

33 Again, you have heard that it was said by them of old time (see Lev. 19:12), 'You shall not swear falsely yourself, but shall perform to the Lord your oaths:' (Quoted from Ex.20:7. Num. 30:2. Deut. 23:21)
34 But I say to you, Swear not at all (i.e. not lightly); neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:
35 Nor by the earth; for it is His footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
36 Neither shall you swear by your head, because you cat not make one hair white or black.
37 But let your word, Yes, [be] yes; No, [be] no: for what is more than these is out of evil.

38 You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:' (Quoted from Ex. 21:24. Cp. Lev. 24:20. Deut. 19:21)
39 But I say to you, That you resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. (If he does it from being insulted by you. If done to harm you, deck him!)
40 And to him who, wishing to go to law with you, and take away your coat, let him have your cloak also.
41 And every one that shall compel you (referring to the custom of forced service or transport. Cp. Luke 3:14) to go (i.e. to carry his baggage. Cp. Luke 3:14) a mile, go with him two.
42 Give to him that asks you, and from him that would willingly borrow from you turn not you away.

43 You have heard that it was said (quoted from Lev. 18:18), 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your foe.' (Personal, political, religious)
44 But I say to you, Love your enemies (that includes tough love), bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you (this clause omitted by all the critical Greek texts), and pray on behalf them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
45 That you may become the children of your Father which is in the heavens: for He makes his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.
46 For if you love them which love you, what reward have you? do not even the tax-gatherers the same? (Hence, extortioners)
47 And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more than others? do not even the Gentiles so? (The tax-gatherers despised; Gentiles detested)
48 Be you therefore perfect, even as your heavenly Father is perfect. (In thus acting on the principles of grace, in conformity with the laws of the kingdom here promulgated)

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