D  U  1-3-. Before the Temptation.
    V  -3-10. The Separate Temptations.
   U  11. After the Temptation.

26 A.D.

Matthew 4)

1 Then (immediately after His anointing as Messiah, "the second man" [1 Cor. 15:47], "the last Adam" [1 Cor. 15:45], must be tried like "the first man Adam" [1 Cr. 15:45,47], and in the same 3 ways [1 John 2:16. Cp. with Gen. 3:6) was Jesus led up by the Spirit into the wilderness (the 1st man was in the garden; Messiah's trial was in the wilderness, and His agony in the garden. Contrast Israel: fed with manna and disobedient, Christ hungered and obedient.) to be put to the test of the devil.
2 And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights (40 the number of probation), He was afterward an hungry. (He put His flesh in a place where it was very weak. Don't you try this! The closer you draw to our Father, the more Satan will try to draw you away with temptations. He will always attack your weakest point. You should be prepared and handle the temptation as Jesus did. Learn to "take names and kick dragon". Be ready for Satan's "ifs".)
3 And when he who was tempting Him having approached Him (as also to Adam and Eve) and said,


It is well known that the order of the temptations in Matthew is not the same as in Luke. Commentators and Harmonizers assume that the one is right and the other is wrong; and proceed to change the order of one in order to make it agree with the other. See Ap. 96.

But an examination of the combined accounts, giving due weight to the words and expressions used, will explain all the differences, and show that both Gospels are absolutely correct; while the differences are caused by the three temptations being repeated by the devil in a different order, thus making six instead of three.

Mark and Luke agree in stating that the temptations continued all the forty days (Mark 1:13. Luke 4:2); they are described as follows :--

I. (Luke 4:3,4) "The devil (ho diabolos) said to Him, 'Speak to this stone (to litho touto) that it become a loaf (artos).'" This appears to be the first temptation: and there is no reason whatever why it should not have been repeated in another form; for it is nowhere stated that there were three, and only three temptations (*1).

II. (Luke 4:5-8) "And the devil, conducting (anagagon) Him, shewed to Him all the kingdoms of the habitable world, or land (Gr. oikoumene, Ap. 129. 3), in a moment of time." Nothing is said about "an exceeding high mountain". Lachmann brackets the words "into an high mountain", and Tischendorff, Tregelles, Alford, WH and R.V. omit them.

The devil claims to possess the right to the kingdoms of the world, and the Lord does not dispute it. Satan says : "To Thee will I give this authority (exousia) and all their glory, for to me it has been delivered, and to whomsoever I wish I give it. Therefore, if Thou wilt worship before me, all shall be Thine."

Nothing is said here about "falling down", as in Matthew. Here only "authority" is offered; for all the critical Greek texts read "pasa" (not "panta") fem. to agree with exousia.

The Lord did not say, "Get thee hence" (as in Matt. 4:10), but "Get thee behind Me", which was a very different thing. Satan did not depart then, any more than Peter did when the same was said to him (Matt. 16:23).

III. (Luke 4:9-12) "And he conducted (egagen) Him to Jerusalem, and set Him upon the wing (or battlement, Dan. 9:27m.) of the temple, and said to Him, 'If Thou art the Son of God, cast Thyself down hence, for it is written, that to His angels He will give charge concerning Thee, to keep thee (tou diaphulaxai se)'", &c.

There is nothing said about this "keeping thee" in Matthew; moreover, it is stated that having finished every form of temptation, "he departed from Him for a season". Note that the devil departed (apeste) of his own accord in Luke 4:13, while in Matthew the Lord summarily dismissed him, and commanded him to be gone. (Matt. 4:10). IV. (Matt. 4:3, 4) After the "season" (referred to in Luke 4:13), and on another occasion therefore, "he who was tempting Him (ho peirazon), having come (proselthon), said, "If Thou are the Son of God, say that these stones become loaves (artoi)". Not "this stone", or "a loaf" (artos), as in Luke 4:3. Moreover he is not plainly called "the devil", as in Luke 4:3, but is spoken of as the one who had already been named as tempting Him (ho peirazon); and as "having come" (proselthon); not as simply speaking as being then present.

V. (Matt. 4:5-7) "Then (tote)" -- in strict succession to the preceding temptation of the "stones" and the "loaves" -- "Then the devil takes (paralambanei) Him unto the holy city, and sets Him upon the wing (or battlement) of the temple", &c. Nothing is said here about the angels being charged to "keep" Him (as in Luke 4:10); nor is there any reason why any of these three forms of temptation should not have been repeated, under other circumstances and conditions.

VI. (Matt. 4:8-10) Here it is plainly stated that the second temptation (Luke 4:5-8) was repeated : for "Again the devil takes Him unto an exceedingly high mountain, and shews to Him all the kingdoms of the world, kosmos (Ap. 129. 1), not oikoumene (Ap. 129. 3), as in Luke 4:5, and their glory, and said to Him : "All these things, not "all this authority", as in Luke 4:6, will I give to Thee if, falling down, Thou wilt worship me". Here, in this last temptation, the climax is reached. It was direct worship. Nothing is said in Luke about falling down. Here it is boldly and plainly said, "Worship me". This was the crisis. There was no departing of satan's own accord here. The moment had come to end all these temptations by the Lord Himself. "Go! said the Lord (hupage), Get thee hence, Satan ... Then the devil leaves (aphiesin) Him, and behold, angels came and ministered to Him".

This angelic ministry marked the end. There is no such ministry mentioned at the end of the third temptation in Luke 4:3-12; for then Satan "departed" of his own accord, returning (in Matt. 4:3) after "a season" (Luke 4:13).

True, the Lord had said "Get thee behind Me, Satan" (Luke 4:8); but He did not, then, summarily dismiss him, nor did satan depart : he continued with his third temptation, not departing till after the third had been completed.

We thus conclude that, while there were temptations continuous during the whole of the forty days (Mark 1:13. Luke 4:2), they culminated in six direct assaults on the Son of man, in three different forms; each form being repeated on two separate occasions, and under different circumstances, but not in the same order.

This accords with all the variations of the words used, explains the different order of events in the two Gospels and satisfies all the conditions demanded by the sacred text.

The two different orders in Matthew and Luke do not arise from a "mistake" in one or the other, so that one may be considered correct and the other incorrect; they arise form the punctilious accuracy of the Divine record in describing the true and correct order in which Satan varied the six temptations; for which variation, he alone, and neither of the Evangelists, is responsible.

(*1) This is like other traditional expressions: for where do we read of "three" wise me? We see them only in medieval paintings. Where do we read of angels being women? Yet as such they are always painted. Where do we find in Scripture other common sayings, such as "the talent hid in a napkin"? It was hidden "in the earth". Where do we ever see a picture of the crucifixion with the mark of the spear on the left side?

V  W1  q1  -3. Temptation. "If You be".
         r1  4-. Answer. "It is written".
           s1  -4. Scripture. Deut. 8:3.
   W2  q2  5,6. Temptation. "If You be".
         r2  7-. Answer. 'It is written".
           s2  -7. Scripture. Deut. 6:16.
   W3  q3  8,9. Temptation. "If you will".
         r3  10-. Answer. "It is written".
           s3  -10. Scripture. Deut. 6:13; 10:20.

If You be the Son of God, speak, in order that these stones become loaves. (This is tempting, it also is Scripture)

4 But He answered and said,

"It stands written (this is the Lord's first ministerial utterance; 3 times. Cp. the last 3 [John 17:8,14,17. The appeal is not to the spoken voice [3:17] but to the written Word. Quoted from Deut. 8:3), Man shall not live on bread alone, but by every utterance that proceeds through the mouth of God.'" (Not some. He makes the footprints which we follow. Was Christ temped to find out if He was real? No! There was no temptation for Him. He is giving you the method to cast aside anything that is thrown at you. The Word of God shows you how to handle Satan. Jesus didn't argue with Satan. You will never go wrong, if you follow His example.)

5 Then (the 5th temptation, see notes above) the devil takes Him up into the holy city (so called on 27::53. Rev. 11:2. The Arabs still call it El Kuds = the holy place. It was so called on account of the Sanctuary), and sets Him on the wing (used of that part of the Temple [or Holy place] where the "abomination of desolation" is to stand, Cp. Luke 4:9 and Matt. 24:15) of the temple buildings, (not the house itself or Sanctuary. Satan is given power over this world, see v.9)
6 And said to Him, "If You be the Son of God, cast Yourself down an attempt upon His life): for it is written (Satan can quote Scripture and garble it by omitting the essential words "to keep You in all Your ways", and adding "at any time". Quoted from Ps. 91:11,12 [not v.13, see note there]. Do you know God's Word well enough to recognize when Satan twists Scripture?), 'He shall give His angels charge concerning You: and upon their hands they shall bear You up, lest at any time You dash Your foot against a stone.'" (Only an idiot would jump off a high place.)

7 Jesus said to him, "It is written again,

'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.'" (Quoted from Deut. 6;16. Note the words which follow: "as you tempted Him in Massah". A reference to Ex. 17:7 shows that there it was to doubt Yahaveh's presence and care. It was the same here.)

8 The devil takes Him again (implying that he had taken Him there before, as 'it is written again' in v.7. and notes in v.3. This is the 2nd temptation in Luke 4;5]) up into an exceeding high mountain (not so in Luke 4:5; because there is only the inhabited world, or the Roman empire), and shews Him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;

There are four Greek words which are thus translated; and it is most important that they should be, in each occurrence, carefully distinguished. They are as follows :--

1. kosmos = the world as created, ordered, and arranged. Hence it is used in the LXX for the Heb. word rendered "ornament". See Ex. 33:5, 6. Isa. 49:18. Jer. 4:30. Ezek. 7:20, &c. It denotes the opposite of what man has called "chaos", which God never created. See notes on Isa. 45:18 and Gen. 1:2 : for the Heb. bara' means not only to create, but that what was created was beautiful. The root, meaning to carve, plane, polish, implies both order and beauty.

2. aion = an age, or age-time, the duration of which is indefinite, and may be limited or extended as the contest of each occurrence may demand.

The root meaning of aion is expressed by the Heb 'olam) which denotes indefinite unknown or concealed duration; just as we speak of the "patriarchal age", or "the golden age", &c. Hence, it has come to denote any given period of time, characterized by a special form of Divine administration or dispensation.

In the plural we have the Heb. 'olamim and Gr. 'aiones used of ages, or of a succession of age-times, and of an abiding age to age. From this comes the adjective aionios, used of an unrestricted duration, as distinct from a particular or limited age-time. These age-times must be distinct or they could not be added to, or multiplied, as in the expression aions of aions.

These ages or age-times were all prepared and arranged by God (see Heb. 1:2; 11:3); and there is a constant distinction in the New Testament between "this age", and the "coming age" (see Matt. 12:32. Heb. 1:2. Eph. 1:21).

"This age" is characterized by such passages as Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43. Mark 4:19; 10:30. Rom. 12:2. 1Cor. 2:8. 2Cor. 4:4. Gal. 1:4. Eph. 2:2 (transl. "course"). 2Tim 4:10. Tit. 2:12.

The "coming age" is characterized in such passages as Matt. 13:39, 40, 49; 24:3; 28:20. Mark 10:30. Luke 18:30; 20:35. 1Cor. 15:23. Tit. 2:13.

The conjunction of these ages is spoken of as the sunteleia, marking the end of one age and the beginning of another.

Other indefinite durations are mentioned, but they always refer to some unknown and prolonged continuance of the end of which cannot be seen; such as the end of life (Ex. 21:6). Hence the Hebrew Priesthood was so characterized because its end could not be foreseen (see Ex. 40:15. 1Sam. 1:22. Heb. 7:12). It is used in the same way in other connections (see Matt. 21:19. John 8:35).

3. oikoumene = the world as inhabited. It is from the verb oikeo = to dwell. It is used of the habitable world, as distinct from the kosmos (No. 1 above, which = the world as created). Hence it is used in a more limited and special sense of the Roman Empire, which was then predominant. See Luke 2:1; 4:5; 21:26. It is sometimes put by the Fig. Metonymy (of the Adjunct),, for the inhabitants (Acts 17:6, 31. Heb. 2:5, 6, &c).

4. ge = land, as distinct from water; or earth as distinct from heaven; or region or territory, used of one special land, or country, as distinct from other countries, in which peoples dwell, each on its own soil.

9 And said to Him, "All these things will I give you (they belong to him [temporarily]), if You wilt fall down and do homage to me." (Here we see Satan's big "if". You see, that is all Satan wants from you. He wants you to worship him instead of Jesus Christ. Many will have just that opportunity in this generation.)

10 Then said Jesus to him, "Get you from here (= Go! This is the end, and the Lord ends it. In Luke 4:13, after the 3rd temptation, Satan "departed" of his own accord and only "for a season". Here, after the last, Satan is summarily dismissed, not to return), Satan: (= the Adversary. What defense does Jesus Christ offer? The Word of God. The word of the Shepherd should be your defense against Satan's attempts to steal your very soul.)

for it is written (quoted from Deut. 11:3,4), 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him alone shall you serve.' " (Quoted from Deut. 6:13; where the possession of the earth depends on loyalty to God [v.12], Who gives it; and on obedience to Him [v. 17,18]. Christ would not bargain off the kingdom of heaven. See Matt. 13:11,14)

11 Then the devil leaves Him, and, behold, angels (see Luke 8:27-34) came and ministered to Him. (Thus closing the whole of the Temptations. No such ministration at the end of the 3rd temptation in Luke 4:13.)

E  F  4:12-7:29. THE FIRST PERIOD. Subject: The Proclamation of The Kingdom, and Call
       to Repentance [4:17]. "Sermon on the Mount" unnamed [5:1-7:29]. The Laws
       of the Kingdom. 
    G  8:1-16:20. THE SECOND PERIOD. Subject: The Proclamation of the King. His Person
        as "Lord" [8:2,6,8] and "Man" [8:20]. Miracles of Creation, manifesting 
        His Deity; and of Compassion, declaring His Humanity.

    G  16:21- 20:24. THE THIRD PERIOD. Subject: The Rejection of the King.  
               Parabolic miracles [Lunatic 17:14; Blind men, 20:30-34].

   F  21:1-26:35. THE FOURTH PERIOD. Subject: Rejection of the Kingdom. Parables 
              and Teaching as to the coming change of dispensation, while the Kingdom   
              should be in abeyance. The Sermon on the Mount [Olives], 24:1-25:46.   
              Miracles: Parabolic and Prophetic: Lazarus [John 11[, and the withered 
              Fig-tree [Mark 11:12-14,20,21].

F  X  12-15. The Lord. Departure to Galilee.
    Y  t  16. Depth of great darkness. The People sitting in it.
        u  17. The Kingdom Proclaimed. Words.
         Z  18-22. Disciples called.
   X  23-. The Lord. Going about Galilee.
    Y   u  -23. The Kingdom Proclaimed. Works.
       t  24,25. Fame of the "Great Light". The People following it.
         Z  5:1-7:29. Disciples taught.

12 Now when Jesus had heard that John was delivered up (there is no Greek for "into" or "prison". No disciple had yet been called [v.18-22]; therefore John could not have been in prison; for, after the calling of disciples [John 2:2,11] John was "not yet cast into prison" [John 3:24]. The is no "inaccuracy" or "confusion". The "not yet" of John 3:24 implies that the previous attempts and perhaps official inquires had been made, following probably on the unofficial inquiry of John 1:19-27. John's being "delivered up" may have led to this departure of Jesus from Judea. Christ's ministry is commenced at Matt. 4:12. Luke 4:14 and John 1:35, before the call of any disciples), He withdrew into Galilee;
13 And leaving Nazareth, He came and dwelt at Capernaum (Jewish authorities identify Kaphir Nakhum with Kaphir Temkhum, since corruptdinto the modern Tell Hum. A Synagogue has been discovered in the present ruins. For events at Capernaum see chs. 8,9,17,18. Mark 1), which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim:
14 In order that it might be fulfilled which was spoken (as well as written) by means of Isaiah the prophet, saying, (Quoted in Isa. 9:12)
15 "The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations;

16 The people which was sitting in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in darkness, [yes] the dark shadow of death light is risen for them."

17 From that time (each portion of the Lord's fourfold ministry had a distinct beginning or ending) Jesus began to proclaim, and to say, "Repent: for the kingdom of heavens is drawn near."

Z  A  v  18. Two Brethren (Peter and Andrew).
       w  19. Their call.
        x  20-. Their obedience.
   A  v  21-. Two Brethren (James and John).
       w  -21. Their call.
        x  22. Their obedience.

18 And Jesus, walking beside the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a large net into the sea: for they were fishers.

19 And He said to them, "Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men." (A Talmudic expression: "A fisher of the Law")

20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed Him.

21 And going on from there, He saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the ship with Zebedee their father, setting in order their nets;

and He called them. (These calls were to discipleship, not apostleship)
22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed Him.

23 And Jesus went about the whole of Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel (the glad tidings) relating to the kingdom,

and healing every sickness and all manner of disease among the people.

24 And His fame (= hearing) went to all Syria: and they brought to Him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with demons, and those which were lunatic (from selene = the moon), and those that had the palsy; and He healed them.
25 And there followed Him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judaea, and from beyond Jordan.

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