27 A.D.
Matthew 11)

1 And it came to pass, when Jesus (Gr. Iesous, Heb. Yahshua) had made an end of commanding His twelve disciples, He departed from there to teach and to proclaim in their cities. (Continuing His mission [4:17])
2 Now when John had heard in the prison (John's arrest had been mentioned in 4:12) the works of the Messiah (Christ), he sent by means of two of his disciples, (Sent as envoys. This is not the same mission as in Luke 7. (1) in this [the former] no number of those sent is given: in the later there were "two" [Luke 7:19]. The antecedents and consequences are different. (2) In the former, the 12 had just been appointed, which may have raised questions in John's mind; in the later, the antecedent was the raising of the widow's son, before the calling of the 12. (3) In the former case, the Lord called them to see and note what He was then doing, "which you are hearing and seeing" [v.4]. In the later case, they are to tell John "what you have seen and heard" [v.22]. The different consequences and repetitions suited to the different circumstances.)

3 And said to Him, "Art You He Who was expected to come (Ps. 118:28. Gen. 49:10. Isa. 35:4. Ezek. 21:27. Zech. 9:9), or are we to expect a different [one]?"
4 And Jesus answered and said to them, "Go and report to John those things which you do hear and see:
5 Blind (]no article in this verse because only some of each are meant. Not all the blind &c.]. There were the miracles foretold by Him [Isa. 35:5.6; 61:1]. No others would have sufficed as His credentials) receive their sight, and lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and deaf hear, dead are raised up, and poor have the gospel preached to them. (i.e. when the Gospel is taught)
6 And happy is he, whosoever shall find nothing to stumble at in Me." (i.e. in My Person, My teachings, My grace, &c.; as He did. Cp. Luke 4:22 with 28. If you don't let those who perceive you offend)

11:7-30. TEACHING.
T1  M1  7-9. Ministry of John.
      N1  10. Word of God. Fulfillment of "Messenger".
    M2  11-13. Ministry of John.
      N2  14,15. Word of God. Fulfillment of Elijah.
    M3  16-24. Ministry of Messiah.
      N3  25-30. Will of God.

7 And as they were going forward, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, "What did you out into the wilderness to gaze on? A reed shaken by the wind? (John didn't change his mind every 5 min. He doesn't like flip-floppers as teachers)
8 But what did you go out to see? A person clothed in soft raiment? (Mantles are meant, made of silk or linen, as worn by gentry, in the East today) behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses.
9 But what did you go out to see? A prophet? yes, I say to you, and far more than a prophet. (In the spirit of Elijah. See 1 Pet. 4:2-11)

10 For this is he, concerning whom it stands written (quoted from Mal. 3:1), 'Behold, I send My angel before Your face, which shall prepare Your way before You.'

11 Verily I say to you, Among them that are brought forth by women (a Hebraism. See Job 14:1; 15:14; 25:4) there has not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is less (i.e. younger, meaning Himself) in the kingdom of the heaven is greater than he. (i.e. John. John was only proclaiming it [but not "in" it]. The kingdom was rejected both as announced by John [3:3], by Christ [4:17], and by Peter [Acts 2:38; 3:19-26]; and, since its final rejection in Acts 28:25,26, is postponed, and is now in abeyance. See Heb. 2:8 ["not yet"]. The possessor is greater than the proclaimer)


  The word "kingdom", like the Greek basileia, has regard to sovereignty rather than territory, and to the sphere of its exercise rather than to its extent.

  Using the word "kingdom" in this sense, and in that which is conveyed in its English termination "dom", which is short for dominion, we note that the former expression, "the Kingdom of heaven", occurs only in Matthew, where we find it thirty-two times (*1).

  But in the parallel passages in the other Gospels we find, instead, the expression "the Kingdom of God" (e.g. cp. Matt. 11:11 with Luke 7:28).

  The explanation of this seeming difference is that the Lord spoke in Aramaic; certainly not in the Greek of the Gospel documents.

  Now "heaven" is frequently used by the Figure Metonymy (of the Subject), for God Himself, Whose dwelling is there. See Ps. 73:9. Dan. 4:26, 29. 2Chron. 32:20. Matt. 21:25. Luke 15:21 ("I have sinned against heaven" is thus contrasted with the words "and in thy sight"). John 3:27.

  Our suggestion is that in all the passages where the respective expressions occur, identical words were spoken by the Lord, "the Kingdom of heaven"; but when it came to putting them into Greek, Matthew was Divinely guided to retain the figure of speech literally ("heaven"), so as to be in keeping with the special character, design, and scope of his Gospel; while, in the other Gospels, the figure was translated as being what it also meant, "the Kingdom of God".

  Thus, while the same in a general sense, the two expressions are to be distinguished in their meaning and in their interpretation, as follows :--

I.  The Kingdom (or Sovereignty) of HEAVEN
  1.  Has Messiah for its King;
  2.  It is from heaven; and under the heavens upon the earth;
  3.  It is limited in its scope;
  4.  It is political in its sphere;
  5.  It is Jewish and exclusive in its character;
  6.  It is national in its aspect;
  7.  It is the special subject of Old Testament prophecy;
  8.  And it is dispensational in its duration.

II.  The Kingdom (or Sovereignty) of GOD
  1.  Has God for its Ruler;
  2.  It is in heaven, over the earth;
  3.  It is unlimited in its scope;
  4.  It is moral and spiritual in its sphere;
  5.  It is inclusive in its character (embracing the natural and spiritual seeds of
       Abraham, "the heavenly calling", and the "Church" of the Mystery).  Hence,
  6.  It is universal in its aspect;
  7.  It is (in its wider aspect) the subject of New Testament revelation;
  8.  And will be eternal in its duration.
(*1) The Kingdom of God occurs only five times in Matt. (6:33; 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43).

12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffers violence (A discovery containing the regulations as to approaching the healing divinity of the sanctuary: "If any one forces himself in, his offering was not acceptable." Those who fulfilled the conditions had the founders good wishes. This last clause is conclusive and agree with Luke 16:16), and forceful ones lay hold of it. (See Rev. 12:7,8.)
13 For all the prophets (see Acts 3:21) and the law prophesied until John. (All would have been fulfilled then had the nation repented.)

14 And if (assuming it as a fact.) you are willing to receive it (they did not), he represents Elijah (had the nation repented, John would have been reckoned as Elijah), which is about to come to come.
15 He that has ears to hear, let him hear. (A Hebraism = do you understand? [the Kingdom]. Used only by the Lord, and marking a dispensational crisis [as this was] on 14 different occasions)

16 But where-unto shall I liken this generation? (a significant expression, occurring 16 times. Characterized by of the epithets, "evil" and "adulterous" [12:39:45; 16:4. Mark 8:38. Luke 11:29]; "faithless and perverse" [17:17. Mark 9:19. LUKE 9:41]; untoward" [Acts 2:40]. All this because it was the particular generation that rejected the Messiah) It is likened to little children sitting in the markets, and calling to their companions,
17 And saying, 'We have piped (played music) to you, and you did not danced; we have mourned to you, and you did not lamented.' (In English "you did not leap...did not weep. A common custom to this day; such response on the part of the audience being greatly appreciated.)
18 For John came neither eating nor drinking [with others], and they say, 'He has a demon.'
19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Behold a man gluttonous, and drinking to excess, a friend of tax-collectors and sinners'. (see 5:46; 9:10) And wisdom is justified by her children." (Or work. And [for all that] Wisdom was [in each case] vindicated by her children; so with Messiah [the Wisdom of God. 1 Cor. 24:30. Cp. Matt 23:34 with Luke 11:42.
20 Then (marking another stage of His rejection) began He to upbraid the cities (the inhabitants thereof) in which most of His mighty works (Gr. pl. of dunamis. See John 2:18) were done, because they repented not:
21 "Woe (&c. A testimony as to His rejection) to you, Chorazin! (not named elsewhere, and no miracles recorded as performed there, or at Bethsaida) woe to you, Bethsaida! (now el Tell; then a fishing suburb at Capernaum; Roman name, Julias) for if the mighty works, which were done in you, had taken place in Tyre and Sidon (no mention of the Lord's having been there. Tyre now es Sur. Sidon the Zidon of the O.T. ; now Saida, 25 miles south of Beirout), they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.
22 But I say to you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment (now drawing near. See 16:23), than for you.
23 And you, Capernaum, which was exalted to heaven, shall be brought down to hell (Gr. Hades): for if the mighty works, which have been done in you, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. (Jesus is coming down pretty hard on Capernum. They had seen miracle after miracle, but didn't believe.)


  Gr. hades, from a (privative) and idein; used by the Greeks for the unseen world.

  The meaning which the Greeks put upon it does not concern us; nor have we anything to do with the imaginations of the heathen, or the traditions of Jews or Romanists, or the teachings of demons or evil spirits, or of any who still cling to them.

  The Holy Spirit has used it as one of the "words pertaining to the earth", and in so doing has "purified" it, "as silver tried in a furnace" (see notes on Ps. 12:6). From this we learn that His own words "are pure", but words belonging to this earth have to be "purified".

  The Old Testament is the fountain head of the Hebrew language. It has no literature behind it. But the case is entirely different with the Greek language. The Hebrew Sheol is a word Divine in its origin and usage. The Greek Hades is human in its origin and comes down to us laden with centuries of development, in which it has acquired new senses, meanings, and usages.

  Seeing that the Holy Spirit has used it in Acts 2:27, 31 as His own equivalent of Sheol in Psalm 16:10, He has settled, once for all, the sense in which we are to understand it. The meaning He has given to Sheol in Ps. 16:10 is the one meaning we are to give it wherever it occurs in the N.T., whether we transliterate it or translate it. We have no liberty to do otherwise, and must discard everything outside the Word of God.

  The word occurs eleven times (Matt. 11:23; 16:18. Luke 10:15; 16:23. Acts 2:27, 31. 1Cor. 15:55. Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13, 14); and is rendered "hell" in every passage except one, where it is rendered "grave" (1Cor. 15:55, marg. "hell").

  In the R.V. the word is always transliterated "Hades", except in 1Cor. 15:55 (where "death" is substituted because of the reading, in all the texts, of thanate for hade), and in the American R.V. also.

  As Hades is the Divine Scriptural equivalent of Sheol, further light may be gained from Ap. 35, and a reference to the 65 passages there given. It may be well to note that while "Hades" is rendered "hell" in the N.T. (except once, where the rendering "the grave" could not be avoided), Sheol, its Hebrew equivalent, occurs 65 times, and is rendered "the grave" 31 times (or 54%); "hell" 31 times (4 times with margin "the grave", reducing it to 41.5%); and "pit" only 3 times (or 4.5 %).

  "The grave", therefore, is obviously the best rendering, meaning the state of death (Germ. sterbend, for which we have no English equivalent); not the act of dying, as an examination of all the occurrences of both words will show.

   1. The rendering "pit" so evidently means "the grave" that it may at once be substituted for it (Num. 16:30, 33. Job 17:16).

   2. The rendering "the grave" (not "a grave", which is Hebrew keber or bor) exactly expresses the meaning of both Sheol and Hades. For, as to direction, it is always down: as to place, it is in the earth: as to relation, it is always in contrast with the state of the living (Deut. 32:22-25 and 1Sam. 2:6-8); as to association, it is connected with mourning (Gen. 37:34, 35), sorrow (Gen. 42:38. 2Sam. 22:6. Ps. 18:5; 116:3), fright and terror (Num. 16:27, 34) mourning (Isa. 38:3, 10, 17, 18), silence (Ps. 6:5; 31:17. Ecc. 9:10), no knowledge (Ecc. 9:5, 6, 10), punishment (Num. 16:29, 34. 1Kings 2:6, 9. Job 24:19. Ps. 9:17 (R.V. = re-turned), corruption (Ps. 16:10. Acts 2:27, 31); as to duration resurrection is the only exit from it (Ps. 16:11. Acts 2:27, 31; 13:33-37. 1Cor. 15:55. Rev. 1:18; 20:5, 13, 14).

24 But I say to you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for you."

N3  O1  25-27. Rest. Christ's rest: found.
    O2  28-30. Rest. Our rest: given and found.

25 At that time (of His rejection, Fig., emphasizing the lesson) Jesus prayed and said (a Hebraism, see Deut. 1:41), "I openly confess to You, O Father (Gr. Pater), Lord (Gr. Kurios) of the heavens and the earth, because You did hid these things from wise ones and prudent ones (i.e. in their own eyes), and have revealed them to babes. (Those who were wise and prudent in the ways of the world couldn't understand, but the message was put forth so that a child with eyes to see and ears to hear could understand. Truth is always like that.)
26 Even so, Father: for so it became well-pleasing in Your sight.
27 All things were delivered to Me of My Father: and no one fully knows the Son, but the Father; neither knows any one the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son intends to unveil to him. (God loves you. He wants you to find His saving power. He wants you to find His Son, Jesus Christ.)

O2  P  28-. Our burden heavy.
     Q  -28. His rest given.
      R  29-. Command. "Take", &ct.
      R  -29-. Command. Reason, "for".
     Q  -29. Our rest found.
    P  30. His burden light.

28 Come to Me, all you that toil and are burdened, (Here Christ refers, not to sins, but to service; not to guilt, but to labor; not to the conscience, but to the heart; not to repentance, but to learning; not to finding forgiveness, but to finding rest. Here limited to those seeking "rest". Do you have trouble in your life? Are you carrying heavy burdens? Take you problem to the Lord. He promises to give you rest.)

and I will give you rest. (His rest is given. Ours must be found in His gift. We have none to give)

29 Take My yoke upon you, and learn of

Me; for I am rich and humble in heart:

and you shall find rest to your own souls. (He is able to give rest to your very soul. That brings true peace of mind, beloved. If you have peace of mind, you are blessed.)

30 For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light. (Jesus wants to help you with your troubles. His yolk is easy to put on. When you put His yoke on your burdens become lighter, because He is helping you. Talk to the Lord. Rest in Him.)

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