A1 A 1:1-2-23. Pre-Ministerial. B 3:1-4. The Forerunner. C 3:5-17. The Baptism: With Water. D 4:1-11. The Temptation: In the Wilderness. E F 4:12-7:29. The Kingdom. Proclaimed. The 4-Fold Ministry of the Lord. G 8:1-16:20. The King. " " G 16:21-20:34. The King. Rejected. " F 21:1-26:35. The Kingdom. " " D 26:36-46. The Agony: In the Garden. C 26:47-28:15. The Baptism: Of Suffering [Death, Burial, and Resurrection, 20:22]. B 28:16-18. The Successors. A 28:19,20. Post-Ministerial.

  There are four lists of the names of the Twelve Apostles : three in the Gospels and one in the Acts. In each list the order of the names varies, but with this remarkable agreement that they are always given in three groups, the first of each group being the same (Peter, Philip, and James the son of Alphaeus), while the other three, thought they vary in order within the group, are never given in a different group.

  They may be presented thus :--

    Matt. 10:2-4.     Mark 3:16-19.             Luke 6:14-16.        Acts 1:13, 26.
1. 	  	  	             PETER
2. and Andrew;  	  and James 	  	 and Andrew, 	      and James,
3. James, 	          and John;  	  	  James 	      and John,
4. and John;  	          and Andrew 	  	 and John, 	      and Andrew,
5. 	  	  	             PHILIP
6. and Bartholomew (*1);  and Bartholomew (*1),  and Bartholomew (*1), and Thomas,
7. Thomas,  	          and Matthew, 	  	 Matthew 	      Bartholomew (*1),
8. and Matthew;  	  and Thomas, 	  	 and Thomas, 	      and Matthew,
9. 	  	  	             JAMES
                               (son of Alphaeus                                      
10. and Lebbaeus (*2); 	  and Thaddaeus (*2), 	 and Simon (*3)        and Simon (*3)
                                                  (Zelotes), 	        (Zelotes),
11. Simon (*3) (Can.), 	  and Simon (*3) (Can.), and Judas (*2)        and Judas (*2)
                                                  (of James), 	       (of James).
12. and Judas Iscariot.   and Judas Iscariot. 	 and Judas Iscariot.  [Matthias (v. 26)].
  Further detailed particulars may be given as follows :--    1. Simon (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:16. Luke 6:14. John 1:42). Peter (Acts 1:13), so surnamed (Matt. 10:2) by Christ (Mark 3:16. Luke 6:14), who also called him Cephas (John 1:42). He was the son of Jona (*4) (John 1:42) and a native of Bethsaida (*4) (John 1:44).    2. Andrew (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:14. Acts 1:13) of Bethsaida (*4) (John 1:44), and Peter's brother (Matt. 10:2. Luke 6:14).

   3. James (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:17. Luke 6:14. Acts 1:13), the son of Zebedee (*4) (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:17), surnamed by Christ, with John, Boanerges (*4) (Mark 3:17).

   4. John (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:17. Luke 6:14. Acts 1:13), the brother of James (Matt. 10:2. Mark 3:17) surnamed by Christ, with James, Boanerges (*4) (Mark 3:17).

   5. Philip (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:14. Acts 1:13), of Bethsaida (*4) (John 1:44).

   6. Bartholomew (*4) (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:14. Acts 1:13).

   7. Thomas (*4) (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:15. Acts 1:13), called Didymus (John 11:16; 21:2).

   8. Matthew (*4) (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:15. Acts 1:13) the Publican (Matt. 10:3. Luke 5:27); called also Levi (Mark 2:14. Luke 5:27), the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14).

   9. James (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:15. Acts 1:13), the son of Alphaeus (*4) (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:15. Acts 1:13).

   10. Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3), whose surname (Matt. 10:3) was Thaddaeus (*4) (Matt. 10:3. Mark 3:18); called also Judas, brother of James (Luke 6:16. Acts 1:13); and "Judas (not Iscariot)" (John 14:22).

   11. Simon (Matt. 10:4. Mark 3:18. Luke 6:15 Acts 1:13), the Canaanite (Matt. 10:4. Mark 3:18); called Zelotes (Luke 6:15. Acts 1:13).

   12. Judas (Matt. 10:4. Mark 3:19. Luke 6:16) Iscariot (Matt. 10:4. Mark 3:19. Luke 6:16), the traitor (Luke 6:16) who betrayed Him (Matt. 10:4. Mark 3:19. John 6:71; 12:4; 13:2), the son of Simon (John 6:71; 12:4; 13:2, 26).

  (*1) A patronymic for NATHANAEL (John 1:44-46), where he is joined with Philip, and in John 21:2 with Thomas.

  (*2) JUDAS the brother of James, to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot. He was called Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus, which words have a similar meaning, the latter being Aramaic. See Ap. 94. III. 3.

  (*3) SIMON, the Canaanite or Cananean. Not meaning a Gentile, but an Aramaic word meaning the same as Zelotes.

  (*4) These are Aramaic words. See Ap. 94. III. 3.




Gospel. Anglo-Saxon Godspell = a narrative of God: i.e. a life of Christ. The English word "Gospel" has no connection with the Greek eauggelion, which denotes good news, and was in use as = joyful tidings, &c., 9 B.C., in an inscription in the market-place of Priene (now Samsun Kale, an ancient city of Ionia, near Mycale), and in a letter (papyrus) 250 years later; both are now in the Royal Library in Berlin.

According to = i.e. recorded by. Gr. kata. The title "Saint", as given in the A.V. and R.V., is a mistranslation of the headings found only in the later MMS., which are derived from Church lectionaries; and should have been rendered "THE HOLY GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW".

A  A  1:1-17. Concerning others. Ancestors.
    B  1:18-25. Concerning Jesus Christ. Birth in the land.
   A  2:1-12. Concerning others. The Wise men.
    B  2:13-23. Concerning Jesus Christ. Flight from the land.

A  C  a  1-. Jesus Christ.  In Summary. Ascent
       b  -1-. David.               "
        c  -1. Abraham.             "
         D  2-6-. The Lay Ancestors: Abraham to David. 14 Generations (v.17).    In Detail
          E  -6-11The Royal or Crowned, Ancestors: David to Judah. 14 Generations.    "
         D  12-16. The Lay Ancestors: Jechoniah to Christ. 14 Generations.            "
        c  17-. Abraham.    In Summary. Descent.
       b  -17-. David.              "
      a  -17. Jesus Christ.         "

Matthew 1)

1 The book (=scroll, as in Ge. 5:1 [Sept.]. Occurs in connection with the first man and the second man [Gen. 5:1 and Matt. 1:1]) of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, (i.e. the humbled One now exalted. Yahshua Messiah. Iesous Christos. In the combination of these two names, the former is emphatic by its position, the second being subsidiary and explanatory. In the Gospels it means "Jesus the Messiah". In the Epistles it means Jesus Who humbled Himself but now is exalted and glorified as Christ. Care should be taken to note the various readings.)

the Son of David, (Because promised directly to David [2 Sam. 7:12,16]. This expression occurs 9 times in Matt. David, heir to the throne. The name of David is in the commencement of the N.T. and in the end also [Rev. 22:16)

the Son of Abraham. (Because promised to him [Luke 1:73], and received with joy by him as by David [John 8:56. Matt. 22:43]). Cp. Gen. 12:3; 22:18. Gal. 3:16. Heir to the land [Gen 15:18].


("The Throne of His father David") 	
("The seed of the Woman")
  	                                                1. ADAM
  	                                                2.  Seth
  	                                                3.  Enos
  	                                                4.  Cainan
  	                                                5.  Maleleel
  	                                                6.  Jared
  	                                                7.  Enoch
  	                                                8.  Mathusala
  	                                                9.  Lamech
  	                                               10.  Noe
  	                                               11.  Sem
  	                                               12.  Arphaxad [Cainan] (*1)
  	                                               13.  Sala
  	                                               14.  Heber
  	                                               15.  Phalec
  	                                               16.  Ragau
  	                                               17.  Saruch
  	                                               18.  Nachor
  	                                               19.  Thara
                        THE FOURTEEN LAY GENERATIONS:  	 
1.  ABRAHAM 	                                       20.  ABRAHAM
2.  Isaac 	                                       21.  Isaac
3.  Jacob 	                                       22.  Jacob
4.  Judas 	                                       23.  Judas
5.  Phares 	                                       24.  Phares
6.  Esrom 	                                       25.  Esrom
7.  Aram 	                                       26.  Aram
8.  Aminadab 	                                       27.  Aminadab
9.  Naasson 	                                       28.  Naasson
10.  Salmon 	                                       29.  Salmon
11.  Booz 	                                       30.  Booz
12.  Obed 	                                       31.  Obed
13.  Jesse 	                                       32.  Jesse
14.  DAVID the king (in Hebron, 2Sam. 2:4, 11) 	       33.  DAVID
                      THE REGAL FOURTEEN GENERATIONS: 	 
1.  DAVID (THE KING "over all Israel", 2Sam. 5:4, 5)   34.  NATHAN second (surviving) son of Bathsheba
2.  SOLOMON (eldest surviving son of Bathsheba)        35.  Mattatha
3.  ROBOAM 	                                       36.  Menan
4.  ABIA 	                                       37.  Melea
5.  ASA 	                                       38.  Elaikim
6.  JOSAPHAT 	                                       39.  Jonan
7.  JORAM (the son in law of Ahab                      40.  Joseph
     "died of sore diseases", 2Chron. 21:19) 	       
       AHAZIAH his son (called "son-in-law of          41.  Juda
        the House of Ahab", 2Kings 8:27) and 	 
       JOASH his grandson, and 	                       42.  Simeon
       AMAZIAH his great-grandson -- all died          43.  Levi
        violent deaths.  (*2) 	 
8.  OZIAS 	                                       44.  Matthat
9.  JOATHAM 	                                       45.  Jorim
10.  ACHAZ 	                                       46.  Eliezer
11.  EZEKIAS 	                                       47.  Jose
12.  MANASSES 	                                       48.  Er
13.  AMON 	                                       49.  Elmodam
14.  JOSIAS 	                                       50.  Cosam
          JEHOIAKIM                                    51.  Addi
          JECHONIAH (*3) 	                       52.  Melchi
                       THE FOURTEEN LAY GENERATIONS: 	                       
1.  Jechonias 	                                       53.  Neri
2.  Salathiel 	                                       54.  SALATHIEL
3.  Zorobabel 	                                       55.  Zorobabel
                                                       56.  Rhesa  (*4)
4.  Abiud	                                       57.  Joanna
                                                       58.  Juda
5.  Eliakim  	                                       59.  Joseph
  	                                               60.  Samei
6.  Azor 	                                       61.  Mattathias
  	                                               62.  Maath
7.  Sadoc	                                       63.  Nagge
  	                                               64.  Esli
8.  Achim	                                       65.  Naum
  	                                               66.  Amos
9.  Eliud 	                                       67.  Mattathias
  	                                               68.  Joseph
10.  Eleazar 	                                       69.  Janna
11.  Matthan  	                                       70.  Melchi
12.  Jacob 	                                       71.  Levi
 	                                               72.  Matthat
 	                                               73.  Heli
13.  JOSEPH (SON reskoned "according to Law" 
 (hos enomizeto, Luke 3:23) of Heli by betrothal
 to Heli's daughter :  therefore {also "according to
 Law" cp. Matt. 1:20. Luke 2:5. with Deut.22:23, 24.}
                                          HUSBAND OF : 74. (MARY) of whom was born :	
14.---------------------------------------------------14 JESUS 75   
                                               WHO IS CALLED "MESSIAH"
                                                 "THE SON OF ADAM
                                             (ho huios tou anthropou)
                                              WHO WAS THE SON OF
(*1) Undoubtedly an interpolation in certain copies of the Septuagint towards the close of the Fourth Cent. A.D. "The evidence against his existence is to the utmost possible degree, clear, full, and positive, and not liable to any mistake or perversion. On the contrary, the evidence for his existence ... is inferential, obscure, or open to the suspicion of falsification". --Lord A Hervey, The Genealogies of Our Lord, ch. viii, p. 195.

(*2) Ahaziah was slain by Jehu (2Kings 9:27). Joash was slain by his servants (2Kings 12:20). Amaziah was slain by the people of Jerusalem (2Kings 14:19). Thus GOD'S "visiting" for idolatry was fulfilled literally "to the THIRD and FOURTH generation" (Ex. 20:4, 5). Their names were therefore "blotted out" according to Law (Deut. 29:20).

(*3) Both Jehoiakim and his son Jechoniah are alike omitted from the regal fourteen generations for first, the paramount reason that the kingdom as an independent kingdom ended with the death of Josiah at Megiddo when Judah passed under the power of Egypt, and ultimately Babylon; and secondly, in the case of Jehoiakim for "that which was found on him" (2Chron. 30:8, note), and in that of Jechoniah for the reasons given in Jer. 22:24-30. Their names are thus also blotted out according to Law.

(*4) It is held by some that Rhesa is not a proper name, but a title applying to Zorobabel. But the case is "not proven".

2 Abraham (Gen. 21:2,3) begat (when used of the father = to beget or engender; and when used of the mother it means to bring forth into the world; but it has not the intermediate sense, to conceive.) Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob (Gen. 25:26); and Jacob begat Judah (Gen. 29:35; 49:10) and his brethren; (Because the promise was restricted to the house of Judah; not extended to the whole house of Abraham or of Isaac.)
3 And Judas begat Phares and Zarah (twins, Gen. 38:29,30) of Thamar (Gen. 38:11-30. The 1st of 4 women in this Genealogy. The other 3 were Rahab, v.5; Ruth, v.5; Bathsheba, v.6.); and Phares begat Hezron; and Hezron (1 Chron. 2:4,5) begat Ram; (Ruth 4:19. 1 Chron. 2:11)
4 And Aram begat Amminadab (Ruth 4:19 1 Chron. 2:10); and Amminadab begat Nahshon (Ruth 4:20. Ex. 6:23); and Nahshon begat Salma;
5 And Salma begat Boaz (Ruth 4:21. 1 Chron. 2:19) of Rahab (Josh 2:1; 6:25); and Boaz begat Obed of Ruth (Ruth 4:21. 1 Chron. 2:12); and Obed begat Jesse; (Ruth 4:22. 1 Chron. 2:12)
6 And Jesse begat David the king; (Ruth 4:22. This addition to the name of David is because of the object of Matthew's Gospel)

and David the king begat Solomon (2 Sam. 12:24. The line in Matt. is the Regal line through Solomon, exhausted in Joseph. The line in Luke is the legal line through Nathan, an elder brother [2 Sam. 5:14], exhausted in Mary. If Christ be not risen, therefore, all prophecies must fail) of her that had been the wife of Uriah; (2 Sam. 12:24)
7 And Solomon begat Rehoboam (1 Kings 11:43. Note that in this case and in the 3 following:- Rehoboam [a bad father] begat a bad son [Abijah]; Abijah [a bad father] begat a good son [Asa]; Asa [a good father] begat a good son [Jehoshaphat]; Jehoshaphat [a good father] begat a bad son [Jehoram].); and Roboam begat Abijam (1 Kings 14:31; Abijah [2 Chron. 12:16); and Abijam begat Asa; (1 Kings 15:8)
8 And Asa begat Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17-18); and Jehoshaphat begat Jehoram (2 Kings 8:16. 2 Chron. 21:1. These names are omitted here. All are not necessary in a royal genealogy. In v.1 tree names are sufficient. The 4 names are 1. Ahaziah [2 Kings 8:27. 2 Chron. 22:1-9]. 2. Jehoash [2 Kings 11:2-12:20. 2 Chron. 24:1-25]. 3. Amaziah [2 Kings 14:8-20. 2 Chron. 25:1,8]. 4. Jehoiakim [2 Kings 23:36-24:5. 2 Chron. 36:5-8); and Joram begat Uzziah; (2 Chron. 26:1)
9 And Uzziah begat Jotham (2 Kings 15:7. 2 Chron. 26:23); and Jotham begat Ahaz (2 Kings 15:38. 2 Chon. 27:9); and Ahaz begat Hezekiah; (2 Kings 16:20. 2 Chron. 28:27)
10 And Hezekiah begat Manasseh (2 Kings 20:21. 2 Chron. 32:33); and Manasseh begat Amon (2 Kings 21:18. 2 Chron. 33:25); and Amon begat Josiah; (2 Kings 21:24. 2 Chron. 33:25)
11 And Josias begat Jehoiachin (2 Kings 24:8) and his brethren, about the time removed to Babylon: (= the Babylonian transference. A standing term. Occurs only in Matt. It began with Jehoiakim, was continued in Jechoniah, and completed in Zedekiah [2 Kings 24 and 25. 2 Chron. 36)

12 And after the carrying away to Babylon (Jer. 22:30 does not say "no sons"; but, "no son to sit on the throne of David"), Jehoiachin begat Shealtiel (the real son of Assir; and hence was the grandson of Jeconiah [1 Chron. 3:17-19, born "after"); and Shealtiel begat Zorobabel; (The real son of Pediah [1 Chron. 3:19], but legal son of Salathiel [Deut. 25:5]. See Ezra 3:2; 5:2. Neh. 12:1)
13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor;
14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud;
15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob;
16 And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was brought forth (here of the mother) Jesus, who is called Christ.


The name "Mary", when used of the Lord's mother, is always in Greek Mariam = the Hebrew Miriam, as is Ex. 15:20.

The other five are usually "Maria".

1. Mary the mother of our Lord (Matt. 1:16, &c). The context never leaves room for any doubt as to her identity.

2. Mary the mother of James the less and Joses (Matt. 27:56. Mark 15:40; 16:1. Luke 24:10). She is called "the other Mary" (Matt. 27:61; 28:1), and the wife of Cleopas (John 19:25).

3. Mary the sister of Martha, who anointed the Lord's feet (John 12:3), see Ap. 156 and 158. She is mentioned by name only in Luke 10:39, 42 and John 11:1, 2, 19, 20, 28, 31, 32, 45; and 12:3.

4. Mary Magdalene, of Magdala (Matt. 15:39). She is always to be identified by this designation (Matt. 27:56. Mark 16:1, 9. Luke 8:2. John 20:18, &c); there is no authority whatever for identifying her with the unnamed woman of Luke 7:37-50.

5. Mary the mother of John Mark (Acts 12:12).

6. Mary, one of Paul's helpers. (Rom. 16:6).

17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; (The 1st began with the call of Abraham, and ends with the call of David the layman [1 Sam. 16:13]. The 2nd begins with the building of the Temple, and ends with the destruction of it. The 3rd begins with the nation under the power of Baylon, and ends with it under the power of Rome [the 1st and 4th of the world-power of Dan. 2]. It is not stated that there were 42, but three 14's are reckoned in a special manner, as shown in the Structure above. Note the 3 divisions of the whole period, as in the 70 weeks of Daniel [Dan. 9])

and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations;

and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

B  F  18,19. Begetting.
    G  20. The angel of Yahaveh.
     H  21. Prophecy delivered.
     H  22,23. Prophecy quoted.
    G  24. The angel of Yahaveh.
   F  25. Birth.

5 B.C.
18 But (in contrast with those mentioned in vv.2-6.) the begetting, then, of Christ was on this manner [for after His mother Mary ( Mary is always in Greek Mariam = the Heb. Miriam, as in Ex. 15:20)) had been betrothed (by Divine ordering, so that the 2 lines, through Solomon and Nathan might be united and exhausted in Messiah) to Joseph, before (Gr. prin. In 11 of the 14 passages where this word occurs the events did take place. In the other 3, one was miraculously prevented [John 4:49]; the day of the Lord absolutely certain [Acts 2:20]; the other was legally imperative [Act 25:16]) she was found with child] of the power on High (not "the Holy Spirit"). (Gr. gennesis. Occ. only here and Luke 1:14, used of the Father. This verse quoted by Irenæus [178 A.D.].
19 Then Joseph her husband, though he was a just man (i.e. desirous of obeying the law), yet not wishing to expose her to shame (this exposure would have necessitated her being stoned to death, according to the Law [Deut. 22:22]. Cp. John 8:5), made up his mind to divorce her according to the Law Deut. 24:1) secretly. (By putting a "bill of divorcement into her hand")

20 But while he thought on these things (i.e. pondered about or contemplated this step. This was Satan's assault, as he had assaulted Abraham before [Gen. 12:11-13]), behold, the angel (= messenger. The context must always show whether human or Divine. 1st of 3 appearances to Joseph in in these chapters) of the LORD (Yehovah) appeared to him in a dream (only 6 dreams mentioned in N.T. T Joseph; to the wise men [Matt. 2:12]; and to Pilate's wife [[Matt. 27:19]), saying, "Joseph, you son of David, do not be afraid (this shows his condition of mind) to take to you Mary your wife: for that which is begotten (as in v.18) in her is of the power on High.

21 And she shall bring (not same word as in v.16. Not "of you" as in Luke 1:53, because not Joseph's son) forth a son, and you shall call his name JESUS (the same as the Hebrew Hoshea [Num. 16] with Yah prefixed = God [our] Savior, or God Who [is] salvation. Cp. Luke 2:21): for He, and none other shall save His people from their sins.


(Matt. 1:22, 23. Isa. 7:14).
I. Prophecy is the word of Yahaveh (2Pet. 1:21) and, as Yehovah is He Who was, and is, and is to come, prophecy must partake of, and relate to, the past, present, and future also; and must have this threefold interpretation or application. The prophecy first quoted by the Holy Spirit in the New Testament will show us how He uses the prophecy which He had Himself inspired; and therefore will furnish us with the principles on which we are to interpret other prophecies.

It will be seen that a prophecy may have (1) a reference to the time and occasion on which it was first spoken; (2) a reference to a later event or circumstances (when it is quoted as having been "spoken" or "written"); and (3) a reference to yet a later or future or final event, which exhausts it (when it is quoted as being "fulfilled"; i.e. filled full).

Hence, instead of speaking "praeterists" and "futurists", we must sometimes take a larger view and be prepared to see both a past, present and future interpretation.

II. The subject of this first quoted prophecy (Isa. 7:14) is Messiah, Christ the Lord; for "the testimony concerning Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Rev. 19:10).

III. Prophecy is always associated with man's failure, from Gen. 3 onward. There was no place for prophecy until man had failed; or for prophets, until the priests became absorbed in their ritual, and ceased to be God's spokesman, and the teachers of His word. Hence, God's true prophets and teachers of His word have always been opposed to the pretensions of priests.

IV. This prophecy was originally uttered when AHAZ king of Judah, in a great crisis, had failed to ask the sign which Jehovah had proffered; and which He Himself afterward gave to Ahaz. It therefore of necessity had reference to the then present circumstances. There was evidently a certain damsel, spoken of as "the" well known damsel (see the note on "virgin", Isa. 7:14), in connection with whom this prophecy should find a then speedy accomplishment. And it evidently did so, or it would have been no "sign" to Ahaz, as nothing would have been signified by it.

But it is equally true that that did not exhaust it, for only a part of the whole prophecy was then fulfilled.

The prophecy begins at Isa. 7:10 and runs on to Isa. 9:7. It is clearly wrong, therefore, to take a part and put it for the whole; for it reaches on to future Millennial times, and is connected with the glorious coming of Messiah.

The whole prophecy, therefore, is Messianic; and although the first part had a partial and preliminary fulfillment at the time it was spoken, it cannot be separated from the last part, which takes in the fact that the "children" are used as symbolical "signs". For it ends by declaring that they "are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth in Mount Zion" (Isa. 8:18). The two parts are connected and linked together by the use of the word "Immanuel" (7:14 and 8:8, 10 R.V. marg.)

1. -- THE PAST.

As to the past; it is clear from the prophecy that Ahaz, greatly moved at the confederacy of Ephraim (put by Metonymy, Ap. 6, for Israel) with Syria, was tempted to make a counter-confederacy with the king of Assyria. A sign was given to him that he need not yield to the temptation, for the danger would pass away. That "sign" must have had a signification for Ahaz that would convince him of the truth of the prophets' words. The sign was that a man child would be born to some certain and well known maiden (for it is Ha-'Almah - "the maiden"), which man-child would be called Immanuel; and, before that child would know how to distinguish between good and evil, the kings of Ephraim and Syria would both be removed. No record of this birth is given; but it must have taken place; as Yahaveh gave the sign for that very purpose.

In chap. 8 another "sign" was given to Ahaz. Another child would be born, this time to the prophetess. He too, would have a fore-determined name -- Maher-shalal-hash-baz; and, before he should be able to say "father" or "mother", both Syria and Ephraim should be spoiled by the king of Assyria.


In chap. 9:6 there is a third sign, and again it is a child. It is a sign connected with the future; or rather one that connects the first sign with this and with the future.

"Unto us a child is born, Unto us a son is given."

This child is also forenamed, and the name is "Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, The Everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace". And the prophecy closes by declaring that His kingdom shall have no end; and shall be associated with the throne of David.

There were, altogether, four "children" who were set "for signs and for wonders in Israel by the LORD of hosts" (8:18). Two were only "signs", but two were "wonders", and they are given, and placed, in alternate correspondence.

A | SHEAR-JASHUB, 7:3 (The son of the Prophet), a "sign".
   B. | IMMANUEL, 7:14, a "wonder".
A. | MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ, 8:1-3 (The son of the Prophet), a "sign".
   B. | "WONDERFUL", &c. 9:6, 7, a "wonder".
Does not this point to the fact that the child of chap. 7:14 is to be associated with the child of chap. 9:6? and, though it was a "sign" of events then transpiring, those events did not and could not exhaust it or the "wonders" to which it pointed.

The names also of these "children" are signs. The meaning of the name Isaiah was itself a sign of that salvation of Jehovah of which he prophesied.

i. SHEAR-JASHUR (7:3) meant the remnant shall return, i.e. repent, and stay upon Jehovah, and wait for Him.

ii. IMMANUEL (7:14) told of the fact that salvation would come to Israel only when God with us should be true as a blessed and glorious reality.

iii. MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ (8:1-3) tells of the Assyrian hasting to make a prey and spoil of the nation, and reveals the need of the salvation of Jehovah. That too, was only partially fulfilled. For there is another who is called "the Assyrian", and in Dan. 9:26 is called "the prince that shall come" (cp. Isa. 14:25). He will hasten to make a prey of the nation; but there is yet another -- Emmanuel, the Prince of the Covenant-- Who will destroy him and bring in, for Israel, final and eternal salvation. His name is called,



But what is happening now -- as a present application of this great prophecy? What else is signified by these "signs"? Yahaveh has been hiding His face from the house of Jacob (8:17). What is this "stone of stumbling"? What is this "rock of offence to both the houses of Israel" which causeth the Lord to hide His face? Is it not the rejection of Messiah as the Immanuel of Isa. 7:14? And is He not the "Child born" of chap. 9:6, 7?

Thus, (1) in this first use of His own prophecy (Isa. 7:14) in Matt. 1:22, 23 the Holy Spirit takes the words out of their original combinations to which their first utterance refers.

(2) The prophecy is then resolved into its elements, and by the same Spirit Who gave it, the elements are re-combined in accordance with the Divine purpose.

(3) He takes up the threads of the whole prophecy (Isa. 7:10; 9:7), and shows that the original circumstances did not allow of the complete fulfillment at the time the words were spoken and written; and finally,

(4) He connects the names and meanings with prophetic truth, and shows that even these looked forward to times and scenes far beyond their original use; so that even the IMMANUEL of 7:14 which was fulfilled in Matt. 1:22, 23 did not exhaust the IMMANUEL of Isa. 8:10, which is yet future according to Luke 1:31, 33.

22 Now the whole of this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet (By Isaiah to Ahaz [Isa. 7:13-16], but afterwards written), saying,
23 "Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us." (Occurs only in Matt. He wasn’t going to ask you to do something that He wasn’t prepared to do Himself despite all the pain of it. As a matter of fact He took it one step further; He allowed Himself to be nailed to that cross through the very palms of His hands yet He did not complain, as a sheep led to the slaughter. He could have backed out. He could have changed His mind. Many of you will think, “I'd like to believe that, but I'm going to wait. I'll change my mind.” What would have happened if He had changed His mind on you?)

24 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took to him his wife:

25 And knew her not till (Matt. 12:46-50; 13:55,56, clearly show that she had sons afterwards) she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.

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