1 And He began again (He had taught there before. Cp. 3:7-9) to teach beside the sea:
and there was gathered to Him a great crowd, so that He entered into the ship, and sat in [the ship on] the sea; and the whole crowd was toward (i.e, facing) the sea upon the land.
V A C 2. Parabolic instruction. D 3-9. Parable. The Sower. B 10-25. Alone with disciples. Expounding. A D 26-32. Parable. The Seeds. C 33,34-. Parabolic instruction. B -34. Alone with disciple. Expounding.
2 And He was teaching them many things in parables, and said to them in His teaching,
D l 3-. Call to hearken. m -3-8. The Parable. l 9. Call to hearken.
Behold, there went out a sower to sow: (This parable is repeated in Luke 8:4 under different circumstances from those in Matt. 13:3, which accounts for the variation of wording. The antecedents in Matthew and Mark are the visit of His kinfolk, 3:31-34 [which is a consequent in Luke 8:4]. The consequent in Matthew and Mark is the question of the 12 concerning others who asked the meaning. In Luke the consequent is the question of the 12 as to its meaning [thus hearing it for the 1st time], followed by the visit of His kinsfolk. Why should not a parable be repeated several times? Why need they be identical? and why should not the 2 accounts of the same be supplementary?)
4 And it came to pass, in his sowing, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
5 And some fell on the rocky ground, where it had not much soil; and immediately it sprang up, on account of it having no depth of soil:
6 But the sun having risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
7 And some fell into thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it (suffocation by compression), and it yielded no fruit. (A Divine supplement, Occ. only here)
8 And other fell into good ground (because prepared), and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
9 And He said to them, "He that has ears to hear, let him hear."
B E n 10,11. Hearers. Discrimination. o 12,13. Hearing and not understanding. F 14-20. Interpretation of Parable. E n 21,22. Teachers. Discrimination. o 23-25. Hearing and understanding.
10 And when He came to be alone, they that were around Him in conjunction with the twelve asked of Him the parable.
11 And He said to them, "To you it has given the secret (not before made known: i.e. its proclamation would be received only by a few) of the kingdom of God: but to them that are outside [that circle] (occ. only in Mark. Cp. 1 Cor. 5:12,13. 1 Thess. 4:12. In Matt. "to them", in Luke "to others"), all these things are come to be [spoken] in parables:
12 That seeing they may see, and not see; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should return [to the Lord], and their sins should be forgiven them." (Quoted from Isa. 6:9,10)
13 And He said to them, "Have you no intuitive knowledge of this parable? (a Divine supplement, here) and how then will you know all the parables?
14 The sower sows the word. (Gr. logos. See 9:32)
15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan comes immediately, and takes away the word that was sown in their hearts.
16 And these are they likewise which are sown on the rocky ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it in association with gladness; (This effect of thus hearing has the "immediate" ending described in v.17.)
17 And have no root in themselves, so endure but are temporary: afterward, when tribulation or persecution arises on account of the word, immediately they stumble. (The stumbling is as immediate as the "gladness" of v.16.)
18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
19 And the anxieties of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts concerning other things entering in, choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirty-fold, some sixty, and some an hundred."
21 And He said to them, "Does the lamp come in order to be placed under the measure, or under a bed? [Is it] not [brought] in order that it may be set on the lampstand?
22 For there is not anything hid, which shall not be manifested; neither does a secret thing take place, but that it may come into [the] light.
23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." (Assuming the hypothesis as a fact)
24 And He said to them, "Take heed what you hear: with what measure you mete, it shall be measured to you: to you, and that with interest.
25 For he that has, to him shall be given: and he that has not, from him shall be taken even that which he has."
D G p 26-. The kingdom of God. q -26-28. Seeds. General. r 29. Fruit brought forth. G p 30. The kingdom of God. q 31. Seed. Particular. r 32. The tree grown up.
26 And He said, "Thus is the kingdom of God,
as if a man should have cast the seed upon the ground;
27 And should sleep, and rise night and day (these Present tenses, following the Past in v.26, indicate the continued rising and sleeping after the seed was sown), and the seed should sprout and lengthen, he has no intuitive knowledge.
28 For the earth brings forth fruit of herself ("not as being without a cause, but without a cause proceeding from us". "God clothes the grass". The explanation is in 1 Cor. 3:6,7); first a blade, then an ear, after that a full corn in the ear.
29 But when the fruit delivers itself up, immediately he sends forth the sickle, because the harvest is come."
30 And He said, "Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what parable are we to compare it?
31 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown upon the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth: (Divine supplement, here)
32 But when it is sown, it grows up (Divine supplement, here), and becomes greater than all herbs, and makes great branches; so that the fowls of heaven (see Matt. 6:9,10. Occ. only in Mark) may lodge under the shadow of it."
33 And with many such parables was He speaking the word to them, as they were able to hear it. (Occ. only in Mark)
34 But without a parable spoke He not to them:
and when they were alone, He kept expounding all things to his disciples. (Cp. Luke 24:27 and 2 Pet. 1:20)
H L 4:35,36. Departure to east side. M 4:37-41. Miracle. Tempest stilled. J N 5:1. Landing. O 5:2-10. Miracle. Demoniac. K 5:11-13. The Swine. Demons. 1st Prayer. K 5:14-17. The inhabitants. 2nd Prayer. J N 5:18-. Embarkation. O 5:-18-20. Miracle. Demoniac. 3rd prayer. H L 5:21. Return to west side. M 5:22-43. Miracles: Jarius' daughter, and Woman.
35 And the same day (this miracle is not the same as that recorded in Matt. 8:23-27, but is the same as that in Luke 8:22-25), when the evening was come, He said to them, "Let us pass over to the other side."
36 And when they had sent away the multitude, they took Him even as He was in the ship. And there were with Him other boats also.
M s 37,38-. Storm arising. t -38. Disciples alarmed. s 39. Storm calmed. t 40,41. Disciples reproved.
37 And there arose a great squall of wind (the earlier storm in Matthew was caused by an earthquake. That storm was before the calling of the 12 [Matt. 8:24 and 10:1]. This storm was subsequent [cp. 3:13]), and the waves were beating into the ship (therefore an open boat), so that it was now filling. (In the earlier storm it was getting covered)
38 And He was on the hinder part of the ship, sleeping [soundly] on the [wooden] seat [with its leather covering] (or cushion): and they awake Him, and said to Him, "Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?"
39 And He arose, and rebuked the wind (1st, and then the disciples, because the danger was greater. In the earlier storm, He rebuked the disciples 1st, and then the storm after, for the opposite reason), and said to the sea, "Peace, be still." And the wind ceased, and there became a great calm.
40 And He said to them, "Why are you thus fearful? how is it that you have no faith?"
41 And they feared with a great fear, and said one to another, "Who then is this One, that even the wind and the sea obey Him?"