The Structure of the Book as a Whole
A  1:1-5. Introduction. Historical.
 B  1:6 - 2:10. Satan's assault. Job stripped of all.
  C  2:11-13. The three friends. Their arrival.
   D  3:1 - 31:40. Job and his friends.
    E  32:1 - 37:24. The ministry of Elihu: The Mediator*
   D  38:1 - 42:6. Job and Yahaveh.
  C  42:7-9. The three friends. Their departure.
 B  42:10-13. Satan's defeat. Job blessed with double.
A  42:14-17. Conclusion. Historical.

  * Note that by this grand Introversion the ministry of Elihu, the Mediator, is placed in the middle, summing up the ministry of Job's three friends, and introducing the ministry of Yahaveh.

Note on the Date and Authorship of the Book of Job.

  A lengthened account of the discussion of these questions would be without profit.

  But, if Job was the son of Issachar (Gen.46:13), then we have a clue that might help us to a decision on both.

  It is better to keep within the Bible itself of its problems; and to treat the whole Book as the context of all its parts.

  There is no reason why Job should not be the son of Issachar, and no better evidence is forthcoming for a different view.

  The three friends of Job were descendants of Esau; they would therefore be contemporaries.

  Eliphaz, of Teman, in Indumea, was a son of Esau, and had a son called Teman, from whom his country took its name (Gen.30:10,11). It was noted for its "wise men" (Jer.49:7); and is mentioned with Edom (Amos 1:11,12). Compare Jer.25:23, where both were connected with Buz, the brother of Uz (Gen.22:21).

  Bildad the Shuhite. Shuah was the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen.25:2); and is mentioned in connection with Esau, Edom, and Teman (Jer.49:8).

  Zophar the Naamathite. Naamah (now Naneh, 6 miles south of Lod, in the lowlands of Judah).

  If Job was the third son of Issachar (Gen.46:13), he would have gone down to Egypt with his father.

  Issachar was 40 at "the going down to Egypt"

  If Job was the third son (Gen.46:13), he would have been about 20 at that time (1706 B.C)

  We are told that he lived 140 years after his "double" blessing (42:10). If that "double" blessing included length of years, then his age would have been 70 + 140 = 210 (i.e. three seventies of years). His lifetime would be from 1726-1516 B.C.

  According to this, he was born the year after Joseph was sold, and died 119 years after the death of Joseph (in 1635 B.C). When Joseph died, Job was 91. If his "double" blessing did include length of years, then his affliction took place 21 years previously, when he was 70. His removal from Egypt to Uz must therefore have taken place earlier still.

  When Job died (1516 B.C.) Moses was 55, and had been in Midian 15 years (25 years before the Exodus).

  This would account for Job being a worshiper of the God of Abraham, and explains how Moses could have been the author of the Book, and perhaps an eye- and ear-witness of the events it records in Midian. If so, the time has come (as Dr. Stier foretold and hoped) when this Book would be regarded as "the Porch of the Sanctuary"; and when this "fundamental wisdom of original revelation will cease to be ascribed, as it now is by some of the best, to a later poet in Israel".

The Words of the Lord Jesus. Vol.iv, p.40.

  (The Book of Job has always formed an integral part of the Hebrew Canon; and some 57 passages in it are quoted or referred to in the other books of the Bible. The object of the book is to show "the end of the Lord" [Jas. 5:11]: the end to which Job was brought in 40:4,4; 42:5,6; viz. the confession of human impotence in attaining righteousness, and thankfully casting himself on Divine omnipotence for salvation. All tends to this "end". The 3 friends show the impotence of human experience [Eliphaz], human tradition [Bildad], and human merit [Zophar]. Elihu points to God as the giver of a Divine righteousness for helpless guilty sinners.)



A  A  1. Job's character.
    B  2. His sons and daughters. Their number.
     C  3-. His possessions. Great.
     C  -3. His position. Great.
    B  4. His sons and daughters. Their unanimity.
   A  5. Job's conduct.

1726-1516 B.C.
Job 1)

1 A man came to be (this settles the question as to the historical fact) in the land of Uz (Uz = wooded. In Gen. 22:20,21, immediately after the offering of Isaac, Abraham hears that his brother Nahor has 8 sons, and among them 2 named Uz and Buz, and Kemuel the father of Aram. Uz gives his name to the land. Buz and Aram are connected with Elihu [32:2]. The land of Uz is mentioned in Jer. 25:20 and to the borders of Chaldea.), whose name was Job (= persecuted, afflicted); and this man came to be inoffensive (none are "perfect" in the English sense of the word. See Gen. 20:5) and upright, and one that feared (or revered) God (Elohim), and eschewed evil.

2 And there were born to him seven sons and three daughters.

3 His substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she asses, and a very great household;

so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east.

4 And his sons went and feasted in their houses, every man his day (probably = birthday. cp. v.5; 3:3. Gen. 40:20); and sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them.

5 And it was so, when the days of their feasting came around, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered up burnt offerings according to the number of them all (showing that, from Gen. 4 onward, the institution was observed): for Job said, "It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts." Thus did Job continually.

1:6-2:10. SATAN'S ASSAULT.
B  D  a  1:6. Presentation of the Adversary.
       b  1:7. Yahaveh's question.
        c  1:8. His approbation of Job.
         d  1:9-11. Calumniation of the Adversary.
          e  1:12-. Limited permission given.
           f  1:-12. Departure of the Adversary.
            g  1:13-19. Inflictions [Job's possessions].
             h  1:20,21. Job's patience.
              i  1:22. Job not sinning.
   D  a  2:1. Presentation of the Adversary. 
       b  2:2. Yahaveh's question.
        c  2:3. His approbation of Job.
         d  2:4,5. Calumniation of the Adversary.
          e  2:6. Limited permission given.
           f  2:7-. Departure of the Adversary.
            g  2:-7. Inflictions [Job's person].
             h  2:8-10-. Job's patience.
              i  2:-10. Job not sinning.

6 Now there was a day when the sons of God (the angels. Satan also is a son of God. Satan has access to heaven, see Rev. 12:7) came to take their stations before the LORD (Yahaveh), and the Adversary (Satan) came also among them.

7 And the LORD said to Satan, "Where did you come from?" Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, "From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it." (Do you think Satan knows who follows God? At that time Satan had that privilege, i.e. to walk on the earth. Today only his evil spirits are allowed. See Jude 4-7. But he will again be here after getting kicked out by Michael in the last days.)

8 And the LORD said to Satan, "Have you considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a inoffensive and an upright man, one that reveres God, and stands against evil?"

9 Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, "Doth Job revere God for nothing?
10 Have not You made an hedge about him (keep the temptations of man away), and about his house, and about all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land.
11 But put forth Your hand now (put for power exercised by it), and hurt (means much more than "touch") all that he has, and he will curse You to Your face."

12 And the LORD said to Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power; only upon himself put not forth your hand." (This is how much faith God has in you, if you are strong in your faith towards Him, you can take it.)

So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.

1656 B.C.
13 And there was a day (= the fit or usual day. When Job was 70) when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:
14 And there came a messenger to Job, and said, "The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them:
15 And the Sabeans (the people of Sheba. Cp. 6:19. Isa. 60:6) fell upon them, and took them away; yes, they have slain the young men with the edge of the sword (Satan didn't do it. He uses people. He whispers in their ear); and I only am escaped alone to tell you."
16 While he was yet speaking (repeated 3 times to show the rapidity and vehemence of Satan's assault), there came also another, and said, "A fire of God (= a great [or terrible fire] Elohim used as an adj. Cp. Song 8:6. Ps. 80:10) is fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell you.
17 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, "The Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away, yes, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell you."
18 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, "Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:
19 And, behold, there came a great wind (Heb. ruach) from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell you."

20 Then Job arose, and tore his mantle, and shaved his head (symbolic of mourning [Lev. 21:5. Jer. 7:29; 16:6. Mic. 1:16]), and fell down upon the ground, and worshiped,
21 And said, "Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return there: the LORD gave, and the LORD has taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD."

22 In all this (i.e. these calamities) Job sinned not, nor charged God with injustice.

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