C A 46:1-28. Egypt. South. B 47:1-7. Philistines. West. C 48:1-49:6. Moab and Ammon. Esat and South. D 49:7-22. Edom. South. D 49:23-27. Damascus. South. C 49:28-33. Kedar and Hazor. North. B 49:34-39. Elam. East. A 50:1-51:64-. Babylon. East.
A E 1,2. Egypt. Proclamation. F 3-12. Its overthrow. F 13-26. Means employed. E 27,28. Israel. Encouragement.
1 The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning all the nations; (For the most part of the 4th year of Jehoiakim, and may have been included in the roll of ch. 36. This section may be compared with Israel's "burdens" and "woes", and Ezekiel 25-32, and Amos 1:1,2.)
2 Against Egypt (1st because most important in connection with Judah, as well as coming 2nd to Babylon at that time [with which it corresponds in position in the Structure above]. Judah was indeed, then subject to Egypt. The policy of Judah's rulers was to lean on Egypt instead of heeding Jeremiah. These prophecies are designed to assure the nation that it could not rely on Gentile powers to thwart God's word by Jeremiah.), against the army of Pharaohnecho king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish (cp. 2 Chron. 35:20-24. The Gargamish of the Inscriptions, known as Jerablus, or Membij, &c.), which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim (a critical era in the history of Egypt, Babylon, Judah, and the world. 4 years before, Pharaoh-necho, on his way to Carchemish, had defeated and slain Josiah at Megiddo, and afterward taken his son Shallum as a vassal to Egypt, and set up Jehoiakim [2 Kings 23:39-35]) the son of Josiah king of Judah.
F e 3,4. Call to battle. f 5,6. Dismay of Egypt. g 7,8. Boast of Egypt. e 9. Call to battle. f 10. Vengeance of Yahaveh. g 11,12. Fall of Egypt.
3 "Prepare you (or, Put in order) the buckler and shield, and draw near to battle.
4 Harness the horses; and get up, you horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, and put on the coat of mail.
5 Wherefore have I seen them dismayed and turned away back? and their mighty ones are crushed, and are fled apace, and look not back: for terror was round about, says the LORD.
6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the mighty man escape; they shall stumble, and fall toward the north by the river Euphrates.
7 Who is this that comes up as the river (i.e. the Nile in flood), whose waters are moved as the rivers?
8 Egypt rises up like a flood, and his waters are moved like the rivers; and he says, 'I will go up (Egypt at this time was so strong that Jeremiah's prophecy seemed most unlikely to come to pass), and will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof.'
9 Come up, you horses; and rage, you chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians (= Cush. Mercenaries, forming the chief part of the Egyptian forces) and the Libyans (Heb. Phut. Ezek. 27:10; 30:5; and Acts 2:10), that handle the shield; and the Lydians (not those in western Asia [Gen.10:22]. All belonging to Africa), that handle and bend the bow.
10 For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance (on the Egyptians), that He may avenge Him of His adversaries: and the sword shall devour, and it shall be satiate and bathed with their blood: for the Lord GOD of hosts has a sacrifice (Cp. Isa. 34:6. Ezek. 39:17) in the north country by the river Euphrates.
11 Go up into Gilead (cp. 8:22), and fetch balm, O virgin, the daughter of Egypt: in vain shall you use many medicines; healing there is none for you. (Cp. 8:22; 51:8)
12 The nations have heard of your shame, and your cry has filled the earth: for the mighty man has stumbled against the mighty, and they are fallen both together."
F G 13,14. Proclamation. Prepare. H 15-17. Fall. G 18,19. Proclamation. H 20-26. Fall.
13 The word that the LORD spoke to Jeremiah the prophet, how Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon should come and smite the land of Egypt.
14 "Declare you in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: (see 44:1) say you, 'Stand fast, and prepare you; for the sword shall devour round about you.'
15 Why are your valiant men laid prostrate? he made no stand, because the LORD had driven him back.
16 He made many to be stumbling, yes, one fell upon another (cp. Lev. 26:37): and they said, 'Arise, and let us go again to our own people, and to the land of our nativity, from the oppressing sword.'
17 They did cry there, 'Pharaoh king of Egypt is but a sound; he has let pass over the time appointed.'
18 As I live, says the King, whose name is the LORD of hosts, Surely as Tabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come.
19 O You daughter inhabitress of Egypt (probably Judah, as in Ezek. 12:2. Jer. 48:18), baggage for captivity prepare you: for Noph shall be waste and desolate without an inhabitant.
20 Egypt is like a very fair heifer (probably an allusion to Apis, the sacred bull), but piercing comes; it comes out of the north. (Though Babylon was on the East, the entry through Palestine was from the north, as Abraham had entered it.)
H h 20. The north. i 21. Mercenaries. k 22,23. Enemies. h 24. The North. i 25. Multitudes. k 26. Enemies.
21 Also her hired men are in the midst of her like fatted bullocks; for they also are turned back, and are fled away together: they made no stand, because the day of their calamity was come upon them, and the time of their visitation.
22 The voice thereof shall go like a serpent; for they shall march with an army, and come against her with axes, as hewers of wood.
23 They shall cut down her forest, says the LORD, though it cannot be reconnoitered; because they are more than the locusts, and are innumerable.
24 The daughter of Egypt shall be confounded; she shall be delivered into the hand of the people of the north."
25 The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, says; "Behold, I will punish the multitude of No (or, Anon of Thebes [an Egyptian idol]), and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and all them that confide in him:
26 And I will deliver them into the hand of those that seek their souls, and into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of his servants: and afterward it shall be inhabited, as in the days of old, says the LORD.
E l 27-. Encouragement. m -27. Reason. l 28-. Encouragements. m -28. Reason.
27 But fear not you, O my servant Jacob (referring to the natural seed; i.e. the whole nation. See Gen. 32:28; 43:6; 45:26,28), and be not dismayed, O Israel:
for, behold, I will save you from afar off, and your seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and be in rest and at ease, and none shall make him afraid.
28 Fear you not (cp. 30:10,11. Deut. 31:8), O Jacob my servant, says the LORD:
for I am with you; for I will make a full end of all the nations where I have driven you: but I will not make a full end of you, but correct you in measure; yet will I not hold you guiltless."