28:1 - 35:10. Woes. Alternated with Yahaveh's Glories.

D  J  K  28:1-22. Ephraim (Samaria and Israel).
        L  28:23-29. Yahaveh the Instructor.
       K  29:1-21. Jerusalem and Lebanon.
        L  29:22-24. Yahaveh the Redeemer.
       K  30:1-17. The Egyptian League.
        L  30:18-33. Yahaveh the Gracious One.
       K4  31:1-9. Apostates.
        L4  32:1-20. Yahaveh The Righteous King.
       K5  33:1-12. The Assyrian spoiler.
        L5  33:13-24. Yahaveh the King in His beauty.
       K6  34:1-17. Gentile nations.
        L6  35:1-10. Yahaveh, the King in His glory.

28:1-22. Ephraim. (Samaria and Israel).

K  M  n  1. Ephraim. Pride.
        o  2-6. Yahaveh the Instructor.
       n  7,8. Judah. Drink.
         N  p  9. Whom shall He teach.
             q  10,11. Teaching. Mocking.
         N  p  12. Refusal to hear.
             q  13. Teaching. Threatening.
    M  r  14,15. Judah. Scorners.
        s  16,17. Yahaveh's foundation.
       r  18-22. Judah. Scorners.

649-588 B.C.

Isaiah 28)

1 Woe (= Ho! We now come in to a cycle of woes corresponding with the "burdens". In these "woes" Yehovah's purpose is alternately thrown into sharp contrast) to the pride's crown) (i.e. Samaria; cp. Amos 6:1,3. Fig., referring to the circle of towers which girdled Samaria), of the drunkards of Ephraim (= one tribe. Fig., put for all the tribes of Israel.), whose glorious beauty is a fading flower (cp. 1:30; 40:7), which are on the head of the rich (or luxuriant) valleys of them that are overcome with wine!

2 Behold, the Lord has a mighty one, immensely strong (i.e. Assyria [2 Kings 17:5,6; 18:10), which as a tempest of hail and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast [Ephraim] down to the earth with the hand.
3 The pride's crown, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet:
4 And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the rich valley, shall become a fading flower, as the early fig [becomes] before the summer; which when he that looks upon it sees it, while it is yet in his hand he swallows it.
5 In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of His People,
6 And for a spirit (ruach) of judgment to him that sits in judgment, and for strength to them that turn (or drive back) the battle to the gate.

7 But they (referring to Judah) also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in pronouncing judgment.
8 For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness (Used at sacrificial feasts [Tabernacles, Harvest, &c.]. 1 Sam. 20:34. Ezek. 40:39-43. Mal. 1:7,12), so that there is no place clean. (In other words, they had taken the Word of God and taught so many different things, that clarity cant come forth thats what it signifies. This is what the misled are saying in the following verse.)

9 Whom [say they] shall He teach knowledge? and whom shall He make to understand doctrine? (Theyre being sarcastic) them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts. (Two questions. He treats us like we are a bunch of babies! Sometimes, a man of God does come down on people and has to talk to them pretty straight. And here they make a mockery.)

10 For (= For [say they] mimicking the prophet as though he were teaching little children in school) precept must be (or, has been) upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little: (May be Englished by: "Law upon law, Saw upon saw". Now, theyre mimicking the prophet, and very few in English know that. Actually you with Companion Bibles are very fortunate, because you kind of lose the mockery if you dont hear it in the original tongue. For say they mimicking the prophet as though he were teaching little children in a school: "For it is *zv lzv, zav lzv kav lkv, kav lkv zr shm, zr shm.*" In other words, its a mockery, a riddle spoken like this. Okay? And then he comes back.)

11 Yes, verily (taking the words out of their own taunting lips, and turning them against themselves. Quoted in 1 Cor.14:21) with jabbering lips and foreign tongue (referring to the Assyrian language they were [alas!] soon to hear [cp.33:19. Deut. 28:49]) will He speak (i.e. by the Assyrians) to this People.

12 To whom He said (or, He, Yahaveh, Who said to them: i.e. by His prophets [7:4; 8:6; 30:15. Jer.6:16]), This is the rest wherewith you all may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear. (Rather than hearing, they mocked. So, he says the same back. Only with the Holy Spirit, rather than speaking mockingly as was done in verse 10. It is said with irony.)

13 But the Word of the Lord became to them (giving back to the scoffers their own words [from v.10] in the form of threatening) precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they may go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and caught. (fig., by which the similar words are heaped together to impress on them the solemnity and certainty of the judgment. Broken and snared and taken by who? The antichrist, if people dont teach the word with clarity, with understanding, with edification, and with exhortation whereby the people can know and understand the Word of God. Thats what Isaiah was saying. Thats what Paul said, and youd better go back and listen to him. Youve heard prominent preachers on television say, Boy, weve got to do this, and just read this off, like this is speaking in unknown tongues, you know? Its sad when people are misled, and God is very serious in this, and God is one of common sense. I dont know, are you?

He makes it very clear. And the point, again, in bringing forth the Word is communication. Do you communicate? When youre teaching its supposed to be natural. If they cant understand what youre saying then youre wasting your time. A gifted teacher can also teach on varying levels that people can understand. Unfortunately some might want to communicate everything they know all at once. What good would that do to the beginner? So thus taking the Holy Spirit to give the gift to being able to speak on all three levels at one time, where the wise can understand. Our Fathers Word can become a stumbling block, for Christ Himself was the chief Cornerstone that the builders rejected. Do you reject His truth, for traditions of men? "Wasnt it that way grandpa was led to believe it?" Well, youd better find out. You see, it doesnt matter what our grandparents might have thought, God bless their souls, or what they are still thinking, what matters is what God thinks. And many might say, well, youre speaking on a topic that can certainly offend many people and make you very unpopular. You're not out to win a popularity contest, but very dear to your heart should be the Word of God, and to see our people grow to maturity in Christianity. For Christ paid such an awesome price that the True Word could go forth to snatch those souls from Satans hand; deception in the ignorance and deception in traditions that reek of ignorance and stem themselves into the lives of people, and lead them astray. God will not be mocked. Hes very clear about that. Be very careful. Its only your responsibility to teach Gods Word as you see it is written and to communicate, that point. Gods Word is so precious when it comes to life in our very hands, and we see with understanding and clarity.)

14 Wherefore hear the Word of the Lord, all you scornful men, that rule this People which is in Jerusalem.
15 Because you all have said, We have solemnized a covenant with death (it is alleged that the use of the word "covenant" is confined to Yehovah by the second "Isaiah" [i.e. after Chapter 40]: but it is so used before that [see 24:5; 33:8]. But why should not a covenant be made with, and by, other parties as it is here?), and with Shel are we at agreement; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves:

16 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, Behold (fig., emphasizing the contrast between the false foundation of v.15 with the true foundation. [This is quoted in Rom.9:23. 1 Pet.2:6]), I have laid (laid, in the counsels of eternity: in Abraham's promise [Gen.12]; in David's covenant [1 Sam.7]) in Zion (In Zion; not Zion itself) for a foundation a stone (this is a distinct reference to Gen. 49:24. It is the Immanuel [of ch.7], the promised Son [of ch.9], the rod of Jesse's stem [of ch.11]), a test stone (i.e. tested itself, and testing others. Cp. v.17, and Zech. 3:9), a precious corner stone, a sure foundation (fig., for emphasis. I.e. a well-founded foundation, or a firm or sure foundation): he that believes shall be constant. (or steady, not fleeing away. See Prov.8:30. Fig., by which the hastening, or flight, is put for the confusion and shame which is the cause of it. Sept. reads "ashamed". In Rom. 9:33; 10:11. 1 Pet. 2:6, the figure is translated, and means therefore exactly the same thing: = shall have no need for hurried flight [cp. 49:23])
17 I will make judgment the lie, and righteousness the plumb-line: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place.

18 And your covenant with death shall be dis-annulled, and your agreement with Shel shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then you all shall be trodden down by it.
19 From the time that it goes forth it shall take you away: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a terror only to understand the hearing.
20 For the bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it: and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it. (this allegory is to show that their false security as to the approach of Sennacherib would afford them no real rest, it would soon be disturbed)
21 For the Lord shall rise up as in mount Perazim, He shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon (this could not be known or understood without reference to 2 Sam.5:20, and Josh.10:10; and this reference must have been in writing: too long before [700 years] to be a matter of mere memory), that He may do His work, strange His work [is] (= foreign); and bring to pass His act, unwonted [is] His strange act.
22 Now therefore be you all not mockers, lest your bands be made strong: for I have heard from the Lord of hosts a consumption, even determined upon the whole land (or soil).

22-29. Yahaveh the Instructor.

L  t  23-25. Ploughing and sowing.
     u  26. Divine instruction.
    t  27,28. Threshing.
     u  29. Divine instruction.

23 Give you all ear, and hear My voice; listen, and hear My speech.
24 Does the plowman plow all day to sow? (i.e. continually = ever keep ploughing? See v.28) does he [for ever] open and break the clods of his ground?
25 When he has made plain the face thereof, does he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the wheat in rows and the appointed barley and the rye in their due order? (connect "appointed" with "due order", not with "barley")
26 For One has instructed him in the right course; his Elohim does teach him.
27 For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod.
28 Corn (=Corn. Fig., put for the corn of which it is made. Cp. Job 28:5) is crushed (i.e. reduced to powder. Cp. Ex. 32:20. 2 Kings 23:6. Render, as a question: Is corn crushed?); no, he will not for ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor crush it with his horsemen.
29 This (i.e. this same design in His treatment of His People. His purpose is the same as that of husbandman. Cp. Amos 9:9) also comes forth from the Lord of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and lofty in wisdom. (the sort of wisdom which carries the purpose through to permanency. See Prov.2:7)

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