A  1:1-2:18. Doctrinal introduction.
 B  C  3:1-4:13. The Mission of Christ.
     D  4:14-16. General application. "Having therefore".
 B  C  5:1-10:18. The Priesthood of Christ.
     D  10:19-12:29. Particular application. "Having therefore".
A  13:1-25. Practical conclusion.

  The general subject of the Epistle is that the Messiah of the Old Testament Scriptures must suffer as Man [i.e. as Incarnate Man], and that Jesus is the Messiah.

  Addressed. "To the Hebrews": to the nation under its earliest name, Palestine Judeans and the Diaspora [John 7:35] alike. Outwardly for believers [cp. 3:1; 6:9; 10:34], it is aimed at waverers [cp. 4:14; 10:23,32] and opposers [cp. 6:8; 12:15,16; 13:10].

  Authorship. The arguments in favor of the Pauline authorship are much more weighty than those in favor of all other candidates put together, and may be stated thus:-

   1. The thoughts and reasonings are Paul's, whatever the style and language may be. All his other epistles were written to churches mainly composed of Gentiles. In addressing such an epistle to Hebrews, he would naturally write as an instructed scribe, as brought up "at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers" [Acts 22:3]. It is therefore futile to argue that if Paul were really the author, the language and style would have been in exact accord with those of the other epistles. Had this been so, it would be an argument against, and not in favor of, Paul's authorship.

   2. There is a certain amount of external testimony that Paul was the writer, but none as to any other.

   3. The testimony of 2 Pet. 3:15,16, strictly interpreted, proves that Paul wrote an epistle to the Hebrews, and if this is not the epistle, where is it? No trace or indication of any other has ever been found.

   4. Its anonymity is eminently in favor of Pauline authorship. The suspicion with which the Judeans regarded Paul, and their furious hatred of him [cp. Acts 21:21; 2. Cor. 11:24; Phil. 3:2; 1 Thess. 2:15, &c.], would be ample reason why, in addressing so important a letter to his own race, he should withhold his own name. If it was necessary at the time of its publication to send out such an epistle, equally necessary was it that it should not be handicapped with a name regarded generally by the Judeans as that of an infamous renegade. The argument of the value of an unsigned article in any important journal applies with great force in the case of Hebrews.

   5. Date of writing and publication. Owing to the fixed idea in the middle of most commentators that the reference to Timothy in 13:23 must have been connected with the Neronian persecution, the date is usually assigned to a period shortly before the destruction of the Temple, which took place late in 69 A.D. The very latest "guess" is that "it may have been written any time 65 and 85 A.D." This is vague and unconvincing. See CHRONOLOGY ETC. OF THE "ACTS" PERIOD were the chronological position of Hebrews is shown, 53-54 A.D. Modern tradition places it after 2 Tim., circa 68 A.D. That the former is correct seems clear for the following reasons:-

    [a] If Hebrews was written in or about the year 68, Paul's ministry had existed for 22 years [since his and Barnabas's "separation" for the work, in 46 AD., Acts 13:2] without the aide of a written statement of such paramount importance as this. What was the immediate object of publishing then, only a year or two before the destruction of the Temple, and very shortly before his own death [2 Tim. 4:6], so weighty an argument that Jesus was both Messiah and true Man, and as Man must have suffered? That the Old Covenant was ended and its place taken by a New [Heb. 8:13]? It is incredible that the apostle who was inspired to write and publish Romans at a comparatively early date should not have been allowed to put forth Hebrews till the very end of his ministry. "To the house of Judah first" is very applicable in this connection.

    [b] Paul was at Jerusalem for the Council meeting [51 A.D.] when the very subjects of Hebrews had evidently been bitterly discussed [Acts 15:5-7]. Shortly thereafter he writes Thess. 1 and 2, both of which contain poignant references to "shameful treatment" at the hands of his own people.

    [c] Some authorities statement must be placed in the hands of even an earthly ambassador in regard to new and altered relationships between his supreme head and those to whom he is commissioned and sent. The 1919 Treat of Versailles may be used as illustration. No representative there reported ultimately by word of mouth to his country, but by presentation of a copy of the entire Treaty. So with this treatise-epistle. Paul, as God's ambassador to the Diaspora and Gentiles, must have had some documentary argument, proof, and testimony, in support of his [and of Timothy's and others] oral teaching and instruction, for circulation among the "many thousands" of Judeans who believed at and after Pentecost, yet all of whom were "zealous of the Law" [Acts 2:41; 4;4; 6:7; 21:20], and with whom Paul and his fellow-workers must have come into contact. To have attached his own name to this would have defeated his purpose, as above mentioned.

    [d] The approximate time therefore for publishing and writing such a body of doctrine must have been shortly after the beginning of his ministry, and, consequently, Hebrews was in all probability written during the 18 months of Paul's sojourn at Corinth, during which he was "teaching among them the word of God" [Acts 18:11].

    [e] Lastly, weighty support is given to these conclusions by the position of Hebrews occupies in the four most important MSS. In some MSS. Hebrews is found in different positions with regard to the other books of the New Testament. In certain it appears as it stands in our Bibles.

A  A  1:1,2-. Gos speaking.
    B  -2-14. Son of God. Better than angels.
   A  2:1-4. God speaking.
    B  2:5-18. Son of Man. Lower than angels.




Hebrews 1)

1 God (Gr. Theos., corresponds with the Heb. Elohim, denoting Creator), who in many portions and in many ways spoke of old to the fathers in the prophets,
2 At the end of these days (i.e. at the period closed by the ministry of John) spoke to us by his Son (see 5:8),

whom He appointed Heir of all things, by whom also He made the worlds; (Think about what was just said. By Christ the worlds were made. Now, you know Whose Spirit moved upon the waters.)
3 Who being the effulgence of His glory, and the express image (Gr. charakter. The word means the exact impression as when metal is pressed into a die, or as a seal upon wax. The Son is the exact image of the Father. If you have seen the Son, you have seen the Father.) of His substance, and upholding all things by the word of His power (Gr. dunamis, where our "dynamite" comes from), when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high: (He purged our sins on the cross.)

4 Having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance inherited a more excellent name than they.
5 For to which of the angels said He at any time, "You are My Son, this day have I brought You to the birth"? (I.e. at Resurrection, when the Son became the glorified federal Head of a new order of beings. Cp. 5:3. Acts 13:33. Rom. 1:4, with 1 Cor. 15:45,&c., and Ps. 2:7) And again, "I will be to Him for a Father, and He shall be to Me a Son"? (Quoted from Ps. 2:7, which, with Acts 13:33, tells us that this day was the day of His resurrection. Our Father is explaining here why you are important to Him. He loves you so much that He sent His only begotten Son to be your Savior.)
6 But when He again shall have brought in the First-begotten into the world, He says, "And let all the angels of God worship Him." (Quoted from Deut. 32:43. If His name is Immanuel which means "God with us", why wouldn't the angels worship Him?)
7 And with reference to the angels He says, "Who makes His angels spirits (angels are spirits. See 1 Peter 3:19), and His ministers a flame of fire." (Quoted from Ps. 104:4.)

8 But to the Son He says, "Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the scepter (cp. Ps. 2:9. Rev. 2:27) of rightness is the scepter of Your kingdom. (That would be a hard verse for some people to be able to explain. It isn't for you. You understand the meaning of Immanuel.)
9 You loved righteousness, and hate iniquity; because of this God, even Your God, anointed (cp. Luke 4:18Acts 4:27; 10:38. 2 Cor. 1:21) You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows." (Quoted from Ps. 45:6,7. Of no other could this be said. From the very foundation God has been in control, and don't worry, He is in control today. He only allows the evil to deceive those who will let it deceive them. There are good angels and there are bad angels = evil spirits. Evil spirits will not come near a knowledgeable Christian that is anointed with the oil of our people.)
10 And, You, Lord, in the beginning have laid the foundation of the earth (see John 1:1); and the heavens are the works of your hands: (See Matt. 6:9,10.)
11 They shall perish; but You remain; and they all shall wax old as does a garment; (The earth and heaven age will perish, but God remains forever. Knowledge of the ages will help you reach the goal.)
12 And as a vesture shall You roll them up, and they shall be changed (see Act 6:14. 1 Cor. 15:52): but You are the same, and your years shall not fail. (Verses 10-12 are from Ps. 102:25-27.)

13 But to which of the angels said He at any time, Sit on My right hand, until I make Your enemies a footstool of Your feet? (See Matt. 22:44. Cited from Ps. 110:1.)
14 Are they not all ministering spirits (we have to deal with the spirits. See Joel 1:6,7), sent forth for ministry on account of them who are about to inherit salvation? (We should thank Father daily for making us joint-heirs in His kingdom. Don't ever say you have nothing. Your Father is willing to give you everything, if you are one of His children that share in the common cause of the family.)

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