According to their Canonical order.

A1  EZRA. The rebuilding of the Temple.
A2 NEHEMIAH. The rebuilding of the Walls.

A1  B  1:1-4. The People. Emancipation.
     C  1:5-2:70. The Return under Zarubbabel.
      D  3:1-6. The Altar. Building and Feast.
      D  3:7-6:22. The Temple. Building and Feast.
     C  7:1-8:36. The Return under Ezra.
    B  9:1-10:44. The People. Dedication.

A2  E  1:1-6:19. The Wall. Rebuilding. Disorders overcome.
     F  H  7:1-4. Jerusalem. Charge over.
         J  7:5-73-. The Return under Zerubbabel.
          G  7:-73-8:18. Feast of the Seventh month.
          G  9:1-10:39. Feast of the Seventh month.
     F  H  11:1-36. Jerusalem. Residents in.
         J  The Return under Ezra.
    E  12:27-13:31. The Wall. Dedication. Disorders overcome.

  In the Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible, and the earlier printed editions of the Hebrew text, these 2 books are always treated and reckoned as one book:

  Ezra confines himself mainly to the events connected with the Temple.

  Nehemiah concerns himself mainly to the events connected with the Wall and the City.

  Ezra comes 1st in the Canonical Order, because the Temple is more important than the Wall, morally and spiritually.


REFS. 	EZRA. 	                                        B.C.    NEHEMIAH.                             REFS.

455 Hanani's report in the month of 1:1-2, 8. Chislen leads to "going forth of the commandment to rebuild Jerusalem" (Dan. 9:25) by Artaxerxes (i.e. ASTYAGES) in his twentieth year. 454 NEHEMIAH'S JOURNEY. He visits the 2:9. Governors, and presents Credentials. SANBALLAT'S RECEPTION. 2:10. NEHEMIAH'S NIGHT SURVEY OF THE RUINS. 2:12-15. HIS REPORT TO THE JEWS. 2:16-18. OPPOSITION THREATENED (Moab, Ammon, 2:19. and Ishmael) on charge of rebellion against the Suzerain King (i.e. of Babylon) Nebuchadnezzar. NEHEMIAH'S ANSWER. Foundation 2:20-4:6. work of Wall begun. Wall itself finished to half its height. ATTEMPTED OPPOSITION BY FORCE. 4:7. 8. NEHEMIAH'S COURSE. PRAYER AND WATCH. 4:9. COMPLAINT OF JUDAH. Used by 4:10-14. Adversaries. RESULTS. 4:15. WALL COMPLETED (second half) in 4:16-6:15. fifty-two days. EFFECT ON ENEMIES. 6:16. REFERENCE TO HINDRANCE DURING 6:17-19. THE BUILDING. Condition of the City. WALL BUILT. 7:1. HANANI APPOINTED GOVERNOR. 7:2, 3. CITY OPEN. PEOPLE FEW. HOUSES 7:4. NOT BUILDED. (Cp. Hag. 1:4.) (Interval of twenty-eight years.) 1:1-4. EMANCIPATION ACT OF CYRUS. 426 1:5-2:2 RETURN UNDER ZERUBBABEL. [N.B. Cyrus's specification for building the Temple recorded in 6:3-5, falls into its proper place here between 2:1 and 2.] 2:1-70. Genealogies of those who Returned. Genealogies of those who Returned. 7:5-73-. The Seventh Month. The Seventh Month. 7:-73. 3:1-3. THE ALTAR OF BURNT OFFERING SET UP. THE FIRST DAY. 8:1-12. THE SECOND DAY. Instruction. 8:13-15. 3:4-6-. Feast of Tabernacles Kept. 426 Feast of Tabernacles Kept. 8:16-18. 3:-6. "BUT THE FOUNDATION OF TEMPLE NOT YET LAID." 3:7. SIX MONTHS' PREPARATION FOR THE BUILDING. 425 3:8-13. SECOND YEAR OF RETURN. Second Month. TEMPLE FOUNDATION LAID. FIFTEEN YEARS OF OPPOSITION. From second 419 NEHEMIAH GOES BACK for twelve years (5:14.) year of RETURN to second year of DARIUS (cp. 13:6). HYSTASPIS. [N.B. Chapters 4:1-6:22 are a retrospective reference to the WALL-building of 410 Neh. 2:20-6:15.] Second Year of DARIUS HYSTASPIS. Sixth month: "This People say, 'The time is not come, the time that the LORD'S house should be built.'" Hag. 1:2. COMMAND : "Is it time for you, O ye, to dwell in your cieled houses, and THIS HOUSE LIE WASTE?" Hag. 1:4. "GO UP ... AND BUILD." Hag. 1:8. SIXTH MONTH. Twenty-fourth Day. The WORK BEGUN. Hag. 1:14-15. SEVENTH MONTH (7th day of Feast of Tabernacles). The word to Zerubbabel (Hag. 2:1-9). EIGHTH MONTH. The WORD to ZECHARIAH. Zech. 1:1. NINTH MONTH. Twenty-fourth Day. The WORD to the PRIESTS. Hag. 2:10-19. NINTH MONTH. Twenty-fourth Day. The FINAL WORD to ZERUBBABEL. Hag. 2:20-23. ELEVENTH MONTH. Twenty-fourth Day. The WORD to ZECHARIAH. Zech. 1:7. FOURTH YEAR OF DARIUS HYSTASPIS. Ninth Month. Fourth Day. The WORD to ZECHARIAH. (N.B. His last date.) Zech. 7:1. 6:15. SIXTH YEAR, Twelfth Month of DARIUS HYSTASPIS. 407 NEHEMIAH OBTAINS LEAVE OF ABSENCE, (13:6.) TEMPLE FINISHED. and RETURNS to be present at 6:16-18. The Dedication of the Temple. The Dedication of the Temple. Twenty years after laying the Foundation, 3:8-13 (in 425) : and five years and six months from beginning the House itself (Hag. 1:14, 15). Ending the "Seven Sevens" from "the going forth of the commandment" of Dan. 9:25 in 454 B.C. 6:19-22. THE FIRST PASSOVER. 404 7:1-8:36. EZRA "WENT UP FROM BABYLON" as TIRSHATHA. Appointed by the Persian Council of State. Four months' journey, from 1st NISAN, and arrival at Jerusalem 1st of AB. 9:1, 2. Separation of the People. Report of the 404 Separation of the People. Princes re the NON-SEPARATION of the Princes, Priests and Levites. 9:3, 4. THE "ASSEMBLY" of all that were troubled at THE "ASSEMBLY," and reading of the 9:3. the words of God of Israel. Law of Jehovah, on the twenty-fourth day of the seventh month. (The second day of the Feast of Tabernacles.) 9:5-15. EZRA'S PRAYER. THE LEVITES' PRAYER. 9:4-37. 10:1-17. "Strange Wives" and the Covenant. "Strange Wives" and the Covenant. 9:38-10:39. 10:18-44. NAMES OF THE PRIESTS, Levites, and others NAMES OF THOSE WHO "SEALED" 10:1-39. THE COVENANT. who had married strange wives. 10:17 EZRA'S LATEST DATE : 1st of NISAN, 403 RESIDENTS IN JERUSALEM. 11:1-36. LIST OF PRIESTS WHO RETURNED with ZERUBBABEL 12:1-26. and EZRA for the Dedication of the WALL. THE DEDICATION OF THE WALL. 12:27-47. THE REFORMATION OF THE PEOPLE. 13:1-31.

The Whole Period covered by EZRA twenty-three years (426-403 B.C.). The Whole Period covered by NEHEMIAH fifty-two years (455-402 B.C.).


A1 A2  K  Neh. 1:1-6:19. The Wall. Rebuilding. External disorder overcome.
       L  N  Neh. 7:1-4. Jerusalem. Charge over it.
           O  Ezra 1:1-4. The People. Emancipation.
            M  P  Neh. 7:5-73-. The Return under Zarubbabel.
                  Ezra 1:5-2:70.            "
                Q  Neh. 7:-73-8:18. Feast of the Seventh month.
                   Ezra 3:1-7.                "
                 R  Ezra 3:8-13. The Temple. Foundation.
                 R  Ezra. 4:1-6:22. The Temple. Building and Dedication.
            M  P  Ezra. 7:1-8:36. The Return under Ezra.
                Q  Neh. 9:1-3. Feast of the Seventh month.
                   Ezra. 9:1-4.          "
       L   O  Neh. 9:4-10:39. The People. Separation.
              Ezra. 9:5-10:44.         "
          N  Neh. 11:1-12:26. Jerusalem. Residents in it.
      K  Neh. 12:27-13:31. The Wall. Dedication. Internal disorders overcome.

  The main sources of information on this subject are Herodotus, Xenophon, Ctesias, Nicolas of Damascus (all B.C.); and Arrian (cent. 2 A.D.).

  The writers of a former generation were occupied in unraveling and piecing together the varying accounts of these ancient historians without the knowledge of the still more ancient Inscriptions recently discovered, which were caused to be written by the persons concerned in the events recorded.

  In 1846 Major (afterward Sir Henry) Rawlinson published a complete translation of the trilingual Persian text on the isolated rock of Behistun, (or more correctly Bahistun) which rises 1,700 feet out of the Plain, on the high road from Babylonia to the East; in which DARIUS HYSTASPIS gives his own genealogy.

  This famous rock (of which a view is given by the kind permission of Messrs. Longmans & Co., the publishers of Canon Rawlinson's Memoir of Major-General Sir H.C. Rawlinson) derives its name from the village of Bisitun or Bisutun, near its foot. It is on the high road from Baghdad to Teheran, about sixty-five miles from Hamadan (on the site of the ancient Ecbatana).

  On this rock, on a prepared surface about 500 feet from the level of the plain, and most difficult of access, DARIUS HYSTASPIS caused to be carved the principal events of his reign; and he commences with an account of his genealogy.

  The following is the translation of the Persian text (*1) :--
  I. "I am Darius, the great king, the king of kings, the king of Persia, the king of the provinces, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames the Achaemenian.
   II. (Thus) saith Darius the king : My father is Hystaspes; the father of Hystaspes was Arsames; the father of Arsames was Arkyaramnes; the father of Ariyaramnes was [Teispes]; the father of Teispes was Achaemenes.
   III. (Thus) saith Darius the king : On that account are we called Achaemenians; from antiquity are we descended; from antiquity hath our race been kings.
   IV. (Thus) saith Darius the king : Eight of my race were kings before (me); I am the ninth (*2). In two lines (*3) have we been kings", &c.

  It must be noted that the confusion which has hitherto been experienced arises from the fact that appellatives have been mistaken for proper names; to say nothing of the confusion arising from their transliteration or translation into other languages.

  These appellatives are, like Pharaoh and Abimelech, the general titles of a line of kings, such as the modern Czar, Sultan, Shah, &c. Hence

  AHASUERUS means "the Mighty", and "is the name, or rather the title, of four Median and Persian monarchs" (Kitto, Bib. Encycl. I, p. 91). "In every case the identification of the person named is a matter of controversy". See The Encycl. Brit., 11th (Cambridge) edn., vol. i, p. 429.

  ARTAXERXES means Great King, or Kingdom, and is synonymous with Artachshast (Arta = Great, and Kshatza = Kingdom, preserved in the modern "Shah"). According to Prideaux he is identified with the Ahasuerus of Est. 1:1 (vol. i, p. 306).

  DARIUS means the Restrainer (Her. VI. 98); or, according to Professor Sayce, the Maintainer. DARIUS "appears to be originally an appellative meaning 'king', 'ruler'", (Herbelot, Biblioth. Orient., Article 'Dara'); Herodotus (VI. 98) renders it Erxeies = Coercer. "It was assumed as his throne-name by Ochus ( = Darius Nothus), son and successor of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ctesias, de Reb. Pers., 48, 57, Muller)". See Kitto, Bib. Cycl., vol. i, p. 625. XERXES, in his inscription at Persepolis, actually calls himself "DARIUS"; one paragraph beginning "XERXES the great king," and the next beginning "DARIUS the king."

  This is why DARIUS HYSTASPIS is thus called, to denote him as DARIUS the son of HYSTASPES; and to distinguish him from "Darius the Mede", who was ASTYGES his grandfather.


  Is the Persian monarch with which this Appendix is concerned. According to Herodotus, ASTYAGES was the son of CYAXARES, who was the son of PHRAORTES (II), who was the son of DEIOKES (Bk. I. 73), who, again, was the son of PHRAORTES (I). (Bk. I. 96.)

  In the genealogy given by CYRUS on the Cuneiform Cylinder, he calls his great-grandfather TEISPES (see below).

  This TEISPES is to be identified with TEISPES the son of ARCHAEMENES in the Behistun Rock genealogy of DARIUS HYSTASPIS.

  The ACHAEMENES of DARIUS, identified with DEIOKES of Herodotus (I. 96), was the real founder of the Achaemenian dynasty of which Darius speaks, although his father (PHRAORTES I) was the first of the line. Herodotus describes him (DEIOKES) as a man "famous for wisdom", of great ambition, "aiming at the aggrandisement of the Medes and his own absolute power" (I. 96).

  PHRAORTES I. would therefore be the first of the eight kings before DARIUS HYSTASPIS, who speaks of himself as the ninth. See translation given above.


  As the grandfather of DARIUS HYSTASPIS, he is (according to the Behistun Inscription) to be identified with the ASTYAGES of Herotodus.

  At the close of the Lydio-Median War "Syannesis the Cilician and Labynetus (or Nabonnedus) the Babylonian (identified by Prideaux, vol. i, p. 82 note, and pp. 135, 136, 19th edn., with Nebuchadnezzar) persuaded ALYATTES to give his daughter ARYENIS in marriage to ASTYAGES, son of KYAXARES" (Her. 1. 74). Of this marriage came HYSTASPES and DARIUS his son.


  In the Cuneiform Cylinder account of the capture of Babylon, CYRUS states :--

    "I am CYRUS the king ... the great king, the mighty king, king of Tintir (Babylon), king of Sumir, and Akkad, king of the regions of the earth, the son of CAMBYSES the great king, king of the city of Anzan, grandson of CYRUS, the great king, king of the city of Anzan, great-grandson of TEISPES, the great king of the city of Anzan, of the ancient seed of royalty, whose dominion (reign, i.e. of Cyrus himself) Bel and Nebo had exalted according to the beneficence of their hearts" (E. Wallis Budge, Babylonian Life and History, p. 87).

  Here we have the statement of Cyrus that his father was known as CAMBYSES, his grandfather as CYRUS, and his great-grandfather under the name (or title), common to the Behistun Inscription and the Cylinder alike, of TEISPES.


  If TEISPES' grandson was ARSAMES (according to the Behistun Inscription), and this TEISPES and the TEISPES of Cyrus's Cylinder are one and the same, -- then, it follows that the CAMBYSES of the Cylinder and the ARSAMES of the Inscription must be one and the same person, well known under different names, titles, or appellatives (*4).

  Moreover, if the TEISPES of the Behistun Inscription and the one of the Cylinder of Cyrus are to be identified with the PHRAORTES (II) of Herodotus (I. 73), then the grandson of this PHRAORTES (II) must be ASTYAGES.

  Consequently we have, under these three names, titles, or appellatives, from Greek, Median, and Persian sources, three persons, called by Herodotus ASTYAGES, by Daruis ARSAMES, and by Cyrus CAMBYSES (*5), who are in reality one and the same.

  But, if the father of CYRUS was CAMBYSES, by Esther (see the Table of the Genealogy, below), then it follows that not only does CAMBYSES = ARSAMES = ASTYAGES, but = also the AHASUERUS of the book of Esther (Prideaux i, p. 306).

  Therefore in the presence of all these identifications from independent sources and authorities, we have :--

ASTYAGES,                    the AHASUERUS of Est. 1:1, &c.
ARSAMES,        } = {      the ARTAXERXES of Ezra 6:14; Neh. 2:1.
CAMBYSES                    the "DARIUS the Median" of Dan. 5:31.

all one and the same person.

  We now give the Genealogy, according to the Inscription of DARIUS HYSTASPIS on the Behistun rock, referred to above.

  The names in large capitals are the Greek names given by HERODOTUS. Those in small capitals are the corresponding Persian names as given by DARIUS HYSTASPIS on the Behistun rock, and by CYRUS on his Cylinder; while the names in ordinary small type are the appellatives.


(Lydian Line).        CYLINDER OF CYRUS (Medo-Persian Line), 	           ROCK	

ATYS (I. 7) 	      (1) PHRAORTES I (*8) (Her. I. 96)
LYDUS (I. 7) 	  	  	 

CANDAULES (I. 7) (*6) (2) DEIOKES (Her. I. 94) 	                 = (2) ACHAEMENES 
GYGES (I. 8) 	      (3) PHRAORTES II (Her. I. 73) 	         = (3) TEISPES 	              = (3) TEISPES

ARDYS (I. 16) 	  	  	 

SADYATTES (I. 16)     (4) CYAXARES (Her. I. 73) 	         = (4) ARIYARAMNES            = (4) CYRUS I

ALYATTES (I. 74) 	
ARYENIS (I. 74) =     (5) ASTYAGES (Her. I. 73) Ahasuerus        = (5) ARSAMES 	              = (5) CAMBYSES

VASHTI, m. (Est. 1:9) (Est. 1:1) Artaxerxes (Ezra 6:14. Neh. 2:1)
                       "Darius the Median" (Dan. 5:31)
                      (m. ESTHER) (*7)(Est. 2:17)

                      (6) CYRUS (*8)"The Persian" (Isa. 45:1.                                   (6) CYRUS II
                       Ezra 6:14) 
  	              (7) CAMBYSES II (*8) 	        	                                (7) CAMBYSES II

(8) HYSTASPES 	      (8) HYSTASPES 	                        (8) HYSTASPES 	 

(9) DARIUS (HYST.)    (9) DARIUS HYSTASPES (*9)Artaxerxes  	(9) DARIUS (HYST.) (*9)
                      (Ezra 7:1)

(By the kind permission of Messrs. Longmans & Co.)


(Type - Coming out of Captivity - Babylon = Confusion as in the Last Days - Today!)
426 B.C.
Ezra 1)

1 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia (= the sun. The son of Astyages and Esther. See Isa. 45:1. So named nearly 200 years before he was born [Isa. 44:28]), that the word of the LORD (Yahaveh) by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled (cp, 2 Chron. 36:21-23. Jer. 29:10-14.), the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying,
2 Thus said Cyrus king of Persia, "The LORD God (Yahaveh Elohim) of heaven (see 2 Chron. 36:23. Appropriate in the mouth of Cyrus, and in contrast with all heathen inscriptions) has given me (the son of Astyages [the venerable king = Ahasuerus] and Esther. Trained by Mordecai and Nehemiah, he was brought up in the knowledge of God and His Word) all the kingdoms of the earth; and He has charged me to build (cp. Isa. 44:24:-28; 45:1-6,13) Him a house (this proclamation put 1st, as it is the great subject treated by Ezra) at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. (Was God in control of this heathen Persian king that ruled over a large part of the world? You better believe He was.)
3 Who is there among you of all His People? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and rebuild the house of the LORD God of Israel, (He is the God,) which is in Jerusalem.
4 And whosoever [of the captive people] is left in any place where he sojourns, let the men of his place (i.e. his Persian neighbors) help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill offering for the house of the [true] God that is in Jerusalem." (God provides the bricks to those that are willing to do the work. This is where many ministries fall short. They believe they have to prod their members to help with that building fund. They don't understand that men don't get things done. God gets things done! He always takes care of those that are teaching His Word.)

C  A  1:5-. The chief of the fathers.
    B  a  1:-5. Return to Jerusalem.
        b  1:6-11. Assistance (v.6 by the Persians, vv. 7-11. by the king).
   A  2:1-67. The sons of the Province.
    B   b  2:68,69. Assistance. (by Israelites).
       a  2:70. Residents in the cities.

5 Then rose up the heads of the fathers (i.e. those named in the next chapter) of Judah and Benjamin (but the other tribes found representatives. Cp. 2:59,70, were the terms "of Israel" and "all Israel" are used. In 2 Chron. 9:3, Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned by name. See 1 Kings 12:17), and the priests, and the Levites, with all them whose spirit God had raised,

to go up to build the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem.

6 And all they that were about them strengthened them with vessels of silver, with gold, with goods, and with beasts, and with precious things, beside all that was willingly offered.
7 Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD (cp. 2 Kings 24:13; 25:14. 2 Chron. 26:7. Jer. 27:18-22; 28:6; 52:18,19. Dan. 1:2; 5:2), which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;
8 Even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar (= the Chaldean name of the prince of Judah. Not Zarubbabel, which means born at Babel. Probably = Nehemiah, for he was the son of Hachaliah and Zidkijah [Neh. 10:1], and therefore a "prince of Judah"), the prince of Judah.
9 And this is the number of them: thirty basons (or bowls) of gold, a thousand chargers of silver, nine and twenty knives,
10 Thirty basons of gold, silver basons of a second sort four hundred and ten, and other vessels a thousand.
11 All the vessels of gold and of silver were five thousand and four hundred. All these did Sheshbazzar bring up with them of the captivity that were brought up from Babylon to Jerusalem.

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