1 And the Lord said to Moses, "See, I have made (= given as such, as in Eph. 4:11) you a god (i.e. in God's stead, elohim = one appointed by oath, elohim [without the article] is thus used to those so given and appointed. Ps.82:1,6. John 10:34,35) to Pharaoh: and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet. (see 4:16.)
2 You shall speak all that I command you: and Aaron your brother shall speak to Pharaoh, that he send the sons of Israel out of his land.
3 And I will harden (see 4:21) Pharaoh's heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.
4 But Pharaoh shall not listen to you, that I may lay My hand upon Egypt, and bring forth My armies (= hosts), and My People the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord (i.e. by a great experience. This was the great object of all the ten plagues; as it will be in the coming day of judgment described in the Apocalypse, Rev. 16:5-7. Don't be afraid, He is not mad at you only is enemies), when I stretch forth My hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them."
6 And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded them, so did they.
7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.
N³ e 8,9. Command for miracle. f 10. Result. Obedience. e 11,12. Imitation of miracle. f 13. Result. Obduracy.
8 And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,
9 "When Pharaoh shall speak to you, saying, 'Show a miracle for you' (= "show us a sign"): then you shall say to Aaron, 'Take your rod, and cast it before Pharaoh,' and it shall become a serpent (wrong translation, should be crocodile = Heb. thaunin)."
10 And Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and they did so as the Lord had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a crocodile.
11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers (Two sets of men mentioned. Pharaoh "called for the wise men, and for the magicians--and these also [the scribes of Egypt] did in like manner with their secret arts". Two of these name by the Holy Spirit in 2 Tim.3:8, "Jannes and Jambres): now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.
12 For they cast down every man their rod, and they became crocodiles: but Aaron's rod (Fig. Ampliatio. The rod still called a rod, though it became a crocodile) swallowed up their rods. (And thus inflicted the first blow on the gods of Egypt.)
13 And He hardened Pharaoh's heart (Heb. here is "Pharaoh's heart was hardened", see 4:21), that he listened not to them; as the Lord had said.
O³ P¹ 7:14-25. First Plague (Blood). Warning. Q¹ 8:1-15. Second Plague (Frogs). Warning. R¹ 8:16-19. Third Plague (Lice). No warning. P² 8:20-32. Fourth Plague (Flies). Warning. Q² 9:1-7. Fifth Plague (Murrain). Warning. R² 9:8-12. Sixth Plague (Boils). No warning. P³ 9:13-35. Seventh Plague (Hail). Warning. Q³ 10:1-20. Eighth Plague (Locusts). Warning. R³ 10:21-27. Ninth Plague (Darkness). No warning.
P¹ g 14-18. Liberation demanded (warning). h 19-21. Plague inflicted. g 22-. Plague imitated. h -22-25. Liberation refused.
14 And the Lord said to Moses, "Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuses to let the People go.
15 You get to Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goes out to the water; and you shall stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent (see Gen. 3:1 and insert there) shall you take in your hand.
16 And you shall say to him, 'the Lord God of the Hebrews has sent me to you, saying, 'Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness:' and, behold, up to this time you would not hear.
17 Thus says the Lord, 'In this you shall know that I am the Lord: behold, I will smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river (probably the Nile canals), and they shall be turned to blood.
18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink of the water of the river.' "
19 And the Lord spoke to Moses, "Say to Aaron, 'Take your rod, and stretch out your hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams (= the canals), upon their rivers (= the seven streams of the Delta), and upon their ponds (= lakes where reeds grow), and upon all their pools of water (= reservoirs of water), that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels (= channels) made of wood, and in channels made of stone."
20 And (9 "ands" vv.20,21. #9 = judgment) Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river (This first plague was directed against the Nile, an object of worship, which was thus polluted, and became a means of pollution to the people. Cp. 12:12), in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments (evidently from the water referred to in v.24):
and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he listen to them; as the Lord had said.
23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.
24 And all the Egyptians dug round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.
25 And seven days were fulfilled, after the Lord) had smitten the river.