17:1-18:27. Events at Rephidim.

k  v  17:1-3. Coming of Israel & chiding of People.
     w  4. Moses and Yahaveh.
      x  5,6. Giving of water by Yahaveh.
       y  7. Memorial of Massah and Meribah.
    v  8. Coming of Amelek and fighting with Israel.
     w  9. Moses and Joshua.
      x  10-13. Giving of victory by Yahaveh.
       y  14-16. Memorial of victory.
    v  18:1-5. Coming of Jethro and message to Moses.
     w  6-12. Moses an Jethro.
      x  13-16. Giving of judgment by Moses.
       y  17-27. Memorial of Jethro's visit.

21st Ziph - 1491 B.C.

Exodus 17)

1 And all the congregation of the sons of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment (Heb. "mouth", put for what is spoken by it) of the Lord (Yahaveh), and pitched in Rephidim (= reclining place. Two stations omitted here. Cp. 17:1. Num. 33:12-14): and there was no water for the People to drink.
2 Wherefore the People did chide with Moses (murmuring was good policy. They would not "dig" [as at Beer and Elim] to "beg" they were not ashamed "Give us water"), and said, "Give us water that we may drink." And Moses said to them, "Why do you all chide with me? and why do you all put to the proof the Lord?"
3 And the People thirsted there for water; and the People murmured against Moses, and said, "Why is this that you have brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our sons and our cattle with thirst?"

4 And Moses cried to the Lord, saying, "What shall I do to this People? they be almost ready to stone me (Heb. = "yet in a little while they will stone me". Moses, David, Jeremiah, Stephen, Paul, and the Lord Jesus suffered from stoning or its threatening).

5 And the Lord said to Moses, "Go on before the People, and take with you of the elders of Israel; and your rod, wherewith you smote the River, take in your hand, and go.
6 Behold, I will stand before you there upon the rock (A type of Christ. Frequently referred to [Deut. 32:4,15,18,31,37. 1 Sam. 2:2. Ps. 18:2]. Rock of life [Deut. 32:18]: Salvation [2 Sam. 22:47, &c.]: Refuge [Ps. 27:5; 62:6,7]: Rest and refreshment [Isa. 32:2]. This is the anointed rock of Jacob's Pillar-Gen. 28:18) in Horeb (see 3:1); and you shall smite the rock (Smitten only once. When you ask for forgiveness of your sins, only ask once for those particular sins. To ask twice is to doubt whether Christ's shed blood and sacrifice is able to purchase forgiveness. Cp. Isa. 53:4. Zech. 13:7. Yahaveh on the Rock = God in Christ [2 Cor.5:19]. No water till smitten [Ps. 78:20. John 7:38,39; 12:24), and there shall come water out of it (Water from the rock. Fire out of the rock [Judg. 6:21]. Honey from the rock [Ps. 81:16]. Oil from the rock [Deut.32:13]), that the People may drink." And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

7 And he called the name of the place Massah (= temptation. Temptation of God), and Meribah, (= strife. Strife with Moses) because of the chiding of the sons of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord (i.e. tempting Yehovah to cut them off), saying, "Is the Lord among us, or not?"

8 Then came Amalek (Cp. Gen. 21:25 and Judg. 5:11. Amalek came to fight for the water. Cp. Deut. 25:17,18. Amalek was behind and attacked the rear, and he "feared not God", Deut. 25:8. Amelek put for the Amalekites by Fig. Synecdoche. At Rephidim, they got water plus Amalek; and Meribah, water plus Edom. A type of Anti-Christ), and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

9 And Moses said to Joshua (first occ. [250 times in all]. Heb. Yahshua. Now 53 years of age. Hence a bondman in Egypt. 27 years younger than Moses. Type of Christ), "Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek (there was a large population in the peninsula at this time. A wilderness, a place of pasture, not a desert): tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand."

10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses (prophet), Aaron (priest), and Hur (royal tribe, Judah. Heb. noble or well-born. The son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, the son of Pharez, the son of Judah [1 Chron. 2,3,4,5,18,19]. Josephus makes him the husband of Miriam and grandfather of Bezaleel [Ex. 31:2; 35:30; 38:22) went up to the top of the hill.
11 And it came to pass, according as Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.
12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.
13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. (Heb. "mouth". Sword in the Plain: Rod of God on the mount [v.9]: Yahaveh above all v.6)

14 And the Lord said to Moses, "Write (first occ. The tablets found at Lachish and Tel-el-Amarna show that writing of a high order was fully developed before the time of Moses) this for a memorial in the book (This writing afterward ordered for "the Book of the Law" [24:4,7]. See notes below, where the history of that Book is traced from this passage to Malachi), and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."

"The Book of the Law."

It is an allegation of the "Higher" Criticism (which dispenses with documentary and/or Manuscript evidence, and therefore differs altogether from "Textual" Criticism) that the five Books known as the Pentateuch were not written by, or during the time of Moses, but in the time of king Manasseh, or even a late as Ezra.

But a definite "book" is spoken of throughout the Old Testament as being constantly written in, with directions how it was to be added to and kept up by the prophets raised up from time to time for that purpose, among others.

The first occurrence is in Exodus 17:14. To this, in the margin, all the others are referred back. They are given below, so that the chain may be examined link by link and its completeness and perfection seen.

1. Ex. 17:14. Written by Yahaveh's command (cp. Deut.25:19). Heb. "the book" (bassapher).
2. Ex. 24:4,7. Written by Moses, and "the book of the covenant sprinkled", with the people.
3. Ex. 35:27. Yahaveh's command, "Write you."
4. Num. 33:1,2. Written by Mses "by the commandment of Yehovah ." From the first three months of the first year to last quarter of the 40th year (cp. Deut. 1:2,3 with 2:14).
5. Deut. 1:5. The word "declare" = set forth plainly, and implies writing (the word occurs only in Deut. 27:8 and Hab. 2:2), and includes Deut. 1:6 to 33:29.
6. Deut. 4:8 includes more than his book of Deuteronomy, and 4:2 must refer to what was written (cp. 26:16; 29:21).
7. Deut. 17:18. The book kept "before the priests the Levites", and to be copied by the king. This was the standard copy (31:9,25,26); to be read at the Feast of Tabernacles in the Sabbatic years (31:10-13).
8. Deut. 31:19,22,24. "The song of Moses" to be written (cp. the reason, vv.16-18). Ascribed to Yehovah.
9. Josh. 1:8. "This book of the law" came into the custody of Joshua cp. 1-8) as distinct from the book of Joshua, and containing, not Deuteronomy merely, but he whole "book of the Law" as thus traced above (cp. Ps. 1:2. Luke 24:44).
10. Josh. 8:30-35. A copy of the law made from "the book" on the rocks in mount Ebal.
11. Josh. 23:6,7 again referred to.
12. Josh. 24:26. Joshua himself "wrote in the book", and doubtlessly added Deut.34.
13. 1 Sam. 10:25. Samuel continued the writing in "the book". (So the Hebrew).
14. 1 Kings 2:1-4. David charges Solomon with regard to this "written" law of Moses.
15. 2 Chron. 17:7-9. Jehosaphat sent the princes, Levites, and priests, and they "taught in Judah, and had the book of the law of Yahaveh with them."
16. 2 Chron. 23:11 (2 Kings 11:12). It was given to Joash according to Deut. 17:18.
17. 2 Chron. 25:4 (2 Kings 14:6) Amaziah spared the children of his father's murderers according to "that which was written in the book of the law of Moses." (cp. Deut.24:4).
18. 2 Chron. 30:2,5,18. Hezehiah's Passover kept in second month as "It was written". This was written in Num.9:6-14.
19. 2 Chron. 35:12. Josiah's Passover kept "as it is written in the book of Moses."
* 20. 2 Kings 17:37. "The law...which He wrote for you", i.e. Yahaveh (cp. v.35).
21. 2 Kings 22:8. "Hilkiah, the high priest...found the book of the law in the house of the Lord." In v.10 "Shaphan read it before the king" (Josiah). Huldah the prophetess confirms this reference (vv.14-20). In 2 Chron. 34:14 it is described as "the book of the law of Yehovah by the hand of Moses."
22. Jeremiah refers to this event when he speaks, as in ch.15:16.
23. Isiah refers to this book as, in his day, a "sealed" book (29:11-3). The Lord Jesus refers to this as opposed to the "precepts of man" (Matt. 15:1-9. Mark 7:1-13).
24. Ezra ascribes the law to Moses. Cp. 3:2 (Num. 28:29); 6:18; 7:6,10,14,21,25. And all is to be done according to it (cp. 10:3 with 9:11,12. Lev.18:24-30, and Deut.23:3-6).
25. In Esther 3:8, the laws were extant (existed), and known as "diverse from all people."
26. Nehemiah (1:7-9) speaks to Yahaveh of the "statutes and judgments He gave by Moses."
27. Neh. 8:8. The book is read according to its requirements.
28. Neh. 8:14,17. The Feast of Tabernacles was kept according to Lev.23:39-43.
29. Neh. 10:2,29. A solemn covenant was made "to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the servant of God."
30. Neh. 13:1. "They read in the book of Moses" concerning the law as written in Deut.23:4.
31. Daniel in his prayer (9:11) refers tot he curse fulfilled on the nations as "written i the law of Moses the servant of God."
32. Mal.4:4 completes the cycle, and refers all to Horeb where the people received the law (as distinct from Sinai, where Moses received it), and to Moses by whom it was given (not to Ezra or some "Redactors" of a latter day).

15 And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Yahaveh-nissi: (= "Yahaveh is my banner". One of the Yehovah Titles)
16 For he said, "Because GOD (Yah) has sworn that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation." (The margins of the A.V. & R.V. show the perplexity caused by the Ellipsis of the verb. "Surely the hand lifted up upon the banner of Yah is to swear: for the war of Yahaveh against Amelek is to be from generation to generation". So it was. It was carried on by Ehud [Judg. 3:13,15], Barak [Judg. 5:14], Gideon [Judg. 6:3; 7:12-14], Saul [1 Sam. 15:2-9, cp. v.11], Samuel [1 Sam. 15:32,33], David [1 Sam. 27:8; 30:1,17. 2 Sam8:12], Simeonites [1 Chron. 4:42,42], and Mordecai [Est. 3:1-6; 9:7-10)

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