The Structure of the Book as a Whole

A  1:1-5. Introduction.
  B  C  1:6-32:47. The Tribes. Their Administration.
      D  32:48-52. Moses. His Death Announced.
  B  C  33:1-29. The Tribes. Their Blessing.
      D  34:1-7. Moses. His Death Accomplished.
A  34:8-12. Conclusion.

  DEUTERONOMY called by the Septuagint translators, and from Jerome, in the Vulgate.
  Deuteronomy = Second Law, from 17:18, where "copy of the law" is so rendered from Rabbinic misneh, a doubling.
  Hebrew Title = Haddeharîm="the words". It is the 5th Book, concluding the 5 Books of the Pentateuch. No scroll of the Pentateuch ever seen with more than these 5 Books (See Ex. 17:14).
  The whole history of the book took place in the 11th month of the 40th year. Only the last 15 Chapters of Numbers refer to the time of Deuteronomy.
  Consist chiefly of 3 discourses delivered by Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined to these discourses are the Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, and the story of his death.
  The first discourse. Deut. 1:1-4:40. After a brief historical introduction the speaker recapitulates the chief events of the last 40 years in the wilderness. To this discourse is appended a brief notice of the severing of the 3 cities of refuge on the east side of the Jordan [Deut. 4:41-43].
  The second discourse, is introduced like the first by an explanation of the circumstances under which it was delivered [Deut. 4:44-49]. It extends from 5:1-26:19, and contains a recapitulation, with some modifications and additions, of the law already given on Mount Sinai.
  In the third discourse, Deut. 27:1-30:20, the elders of Israel are associated with Moses. The People are commanded to set up stones upon Mount Ebal, and on them write "all the words of this Law". Then follows the several curses to be pronounced by the Levites on Ebal, Deut. 27:14-16, and the blessings on Gerizim, Deut.28:1-14.
  The delivery of the law as written by Moses [for its still further preservation] to the custody of the Levites, and a charge to the People to hear it read once every 7 years, Deut. 31; the Song of Moses spoken in the ears of the People, Deut. 31:30-32:44; and the blessing of the 12 tribes, Deut. 33.
  The Book closes, Deut. 34, with an account of the death of Moses, which is first announced to him Deut.32:48-52. The Book bears witness to its own authorship, Deut.31:19, and is expressly cited in the New Testament as the work of Moses, Matt. 19:7,8; Mark 10:3; Acts 3:22; 7:37. The last Chapter, containing an account of the death of Moses, was of course written by a latter hand, and probably formed originally the beginning of the Book of Joshua.

  References to Deuteronomy in the New testament, quoted by Jesus Christ in His conflict with Satan. Deut.6:13,16; 8:3; 10:20. Cp. Matt.4:4,7,10.
  The following important passages are referred to:–

      Deut.1:31.      See Acts 13:18.
           4:24.       "  Heb. 12:29.
           4:35.       "  Mark 12:32.
           6:4,5.      "  Matt. 22:37,38. Luke 10:27.
           10:17.      "  Acts 10:34. Rom. 2:11. Gal. 2:6.
                          Eph. 6:9. Col.3:25. 1 Pet. 1:17.
           17:6.       "  Matt. 18:16. 2 Cor. 13:1. 
           18:15.      "  Acts  3:22; 7:37.
           19:15.      "  Deut. 17:6, above.
           21:23.      "  Gal. 3:13.
           24:1.       "  Matt. 5:31; 19:7.
           25:4.       "  1 Cor. 9:9. 1 Tim. 5:18.
           27:26.      "  Gal. 3:10.
           29:4.       "  Rom. 11:8.
           29:18.      "  Heb. 12:15.
           30:4.       "  Matt. 24:31.
           30:11-14    "  Rom. 10:6-8.
           32 & 33:1-29.  Rev. 15:3.
           32:17.      "  1 Cor. 10:20.
           32:21.      "  Rom. 10:19. 1 Cor.10:22.
           32:35,36.   "  Heb. 10:30.
           32:43.(Sept)"  Heb. 1:6. Rom.15:10.

The Fifth Book of Moses,


"THE WORDS"(Deuteronomy).

1452 B.C
Deuteronomy 1)

 1: These (note the 10 addresses to Moses, #10 denotes Ordinal perfection, or completeness. Another new first; after the 9th digit, when numeration commences anew:–

     1. 1:6-4:40.          6. 29:2-30:20.
     2. 5:1-10:5.          7. 31:2-6.
     3. 10:10-12:32.       8. 32:1-43.
     4. 13:1-26:19.        9. 32:44-47.
     5. 27:1-28:68.        10. 33:2-29.

be the words (Heb. Haddebarîm. See note in intro) which Moses spoke to all Israel (cp. 5:1. Mode given by God, Ex. 3:16; 4:29. Lev. 24:14. "All" used by Fig. Synecdocke to signify a national gathering of any size [1 Sam. 7:3; 12:1,19. 1 Kings 8:2,14,22,55,62; 12:12,16,18 &c.]) on this side Jordan (=across Jordan, a neutral term, expression to be determined by context. Num.22:1) in the wilderness, in the plain (Heb. ‘Arabah = name of vale from Jordan to Gulf of Akabah) over against the Red sea (Heb. Sûph, name of a place. Omit "sea" See Num. 33:48,49,50; 35:1; 36:13), between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab.
 2: {There are eleven days' (i.e going direct) journey from Horeb by the way of mount Seir (= Edom) to Kadesh-barnea (see Num. 32:8).}

22rd Jan., 1452 B.C.

 3: And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month (40 = the number of probation. First month Miriam died, Num. 20:1; fifth month, Aaron died, Num. 33:38; at the end, Moses died on the 19th February 1452 B.C.; for the 30 days' mourning end with the last day of the 40th year–20th March, 1452 B.C.), that Moses spoke to the sons of Israel, according to all that the Lord (Yahaveh) had given him in commandment to them (Always thus. Cp. 2 Pet. 1:20,21);
 4: After he had slain Sihon the king of the Amorites, which dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, which dwelt at Astaroth in Edrei:
 5: On this side Jordan, in the land of Moab, began (= undertook with will, Heb. ya’al, first occ. Gen. 18:27,31) Moses to declare (Heb. ba’ar, make plain, show sense, set forth, especially in writing: occurs only here and 27:8, and Hab. 2:2) this law (= torah = instruction), saying,

1:6-32:47. The Tribes. Their Administration.

C  E  G  1:6–3:29. Possession of Jordan. Retrospective.
       H  a  4:1–5:33. Injunctions in Horeb. Retrospective.
           b  6:1–11:25. Injunctions on entry. Prospective.
            J  c  11:26–28. Blessings and curses.
                d  11:29–32. Gerizim and Ebal.
                 F  12:1–27:10. Laws in the Land.
            J   d  27:11–26. Gerizim and Ebal.
               c  28:1–68. Blessings and curses.
       H  a  29:1–17. Injunctions plus Horeb. Retrospective.
           b  29:18–30:20. Injunctions re Dispersion. Retrospective.
      G  31:1–8. Possession West of Jordan. Prospective.
                 F  31:9–32:47. Laws and Song: in and out of the Land.

1:6–3:29. Possession East of Jordan: Retrospective.

G  K  e  1:6–8. Command to go up. Before the 40 years.
       f  1:9–45. Disobedience rehearsed.    "
        g  1:46. Abode in Kadesh.            "
   K  e  2:1–3. Command to go up. After the 40 years.
       f  2:4–3:28. Obedience rehearsed.     "
        g  3:29. Abode in Beth-peor.         "

 6: The Lord our God (Yahaveh ’Eloheinu = The LORD our God. Two titles of later date do not occ. in Deut: "The Lord of " [Samuel] and "the Holy One of Israel [Isaiah]) spoke to us (Yahaveh spoke only here to "us". His speaking to others, see 2:1. Yahaveh "said", see 2:9. Yahaveh "commanded", see 4:14) in Horeb (20th day of second month [9-10th April]. Num.1-:11-13), saying, ‘You all have dwelt long enough in this mount:
 7: Turn you (= face about), and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and unto all the places near thereunto, in the plain, in the hills, and in the vale (Heb. Shephelah=Philistia), and in the south (= the Negeb, the hill country south of Judea. See Gen.12:9; 13:1), and by the sea side, to the land of the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon, unto the great river (Heb. nâhâr, a flood, not nahal,a wady. Cp. Gen. 15:18), the river Euphrates.
 8: Behold, I have set the land before you: go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (see Gen. 15:18; 17:7,8; 24:7; 26:3 &c. This promise mentioned 27 times in Deut., but unintelligible without Genesis), to give to them and to their seed after them.

9-45. Disobedience. Rehearsed.

f  h¹  9-18. Appointment of judges, &c.
    i¹  19-21. Command to go up.
   h²  22-25. Appointment of spies.
    i²  26-33. Disobedience.
   h³  34-45. Appointment of judgment.

 9: And I spoke to you at that time (see Ex. 18:17,18. Num. 11:14), saying, ‘I am not able to bear you myself alone:
 10: The Lord your God has multiplied you (cp. 10:22), and, behold, you all are this day as the stars of heaven for multitude.’
 11: {The Lord God of your fathers make you a thousand times so many more as you all are, and bless you, as He has promised you! (see Gen. 12:2; 22:17 &c.)}
 12: ‘How (see Lam. 1:1) can I myself alone bear your cumbrance (Heb. torah, only here and Isa.1:14, [trouble]), and your burden, and your strife?
 13: Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes (Heb. shêbat, tribe, according to historical or political corporation; always this word in Deut. Where "tribe" is genealogical or geographical elsewhere it is matteh), and I will make them rulers over you.’
 14: And you all answered me, and said, ‘The thing which you have spoken is good for us to do.’
 15: So I took (cp. Ex. 18:21-26) the chief of your tribes (Heb. sar. Cp. Gen. 32:28), wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.
 16: And I charged your judges at that time, saying, ‘Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him.
 17: You all shall not respect persons in judgment (i.e. suited to each case. Cp. Ex. 18:26); but you all shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's: and the cause that is too hard for you, bring it to me, and I will hear it.’
 18: And I commanded you at that time all the things which you all should do.

 19: And when we departed from Horeb, we went through all that great and terrible desert (cp. Num. 10:11-36; 11:5; 12:16; 13:26; and Deut.8:15), which you all saw by the way of the mountain of the Amorites, according as the Lord our God commanded us; and we came to Kadesh-barnea (cp. Num.32:8. A place of solemn import in Israel's history).
 20: And I said to you, ‘You all are come to the mountain of the Amorites (descendants of the Nephilim, see Gen 6:3), which the Lord our does give to us.
 21: Behold, the Lord your God has set the land before you: go up and possess it, as the Lord God of your fathers has said to you; fear not, neither be discouraged.’ (cp. 31:6,8. Josh.1:9; 8:1; 10:25. 1 Chron. 22:13. 2 Chron. 20:15,17; 32:7. Jer. 23:4; 30:10)

 22: And you all came near to me every one of you, and said, ‘We will send men before us, and they shall search us out the land (proposal came from people, and is here charged home against them. Yahaveh assented, and this assent appears in the history. Num. 13:1-3), and bring us word again by what way we must go up, and into what cities we shall come.’
 23: And the saying pleased me well: and I took twelve men of you, one of a tribe:
 24: And they turned and went up into the mountain, and came to the valley of Eshcol (= a cluster of grapes. Num. 13:22-25), and searched it out.
 25: And they took of the fruit of the land in their hands, and brought it down to us, and brought us word again, and said, ‘It is a good land which the Lord our God does give us.’

 26: Notwithstanding you all would not go up, but rebelled against the commandment of the the Lord your God:
 27: And you all rebelled in your tents (Heb. râgan, only here, Ps. 106:25), and said, ‘Because the Lord hated us, He has brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy (= exterminate) us.
 28: To which place shall we go up? our own brethren (cp. Num. 13:28) have discouraged our heart, saying, ‘The people is greater and taller (some codices read "more in number") than we; the cities are great and walled up to heaven (Fig., Hyperbole); and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakims there.’ ’ (first occ: elsewhere 2:10,1121; 9:2. Josh. 11:21,22; 14:12,15. See Gen. 6:3. For "sons of Anak", see Num.13:22)
 29: Then I said to you, ‘Dread not, neither be afraid of them.
 30: The Lord your God Which goes before you, He shall fight for you, according to all that He did for you in Egypt before your eyes;
 31: And in the wilderness, where you have seen how that the Lord your God bare you, as a man does bear his son (see Num. 11:11,12, and cp. Isa. 63:9 and Acts 13:18), in all the way that you all went, until you all came into this place.’
 32: Yet in this thing you all did not believe the Lord your God,
 33: Who went in the way before you, to search you out a place (see Ex. 15:17. Num. 10:33. Josh. 3:3,4. Ezek. 20:6) to pitch your tents in (not only your inheritance, but the halting place for daily journeying there. Both were and are Yehovah's choice for His People), in fire by night (see Ex. 13:21,22. Num. 10:33,34), to show you by what way you all should go, and in a cloud by day.

 34: And the Lord heard the voice of your words, and was wroth (see Num. 14:20-35), and swore, saying,
 35: ‘Surely there shall not one of these men of this evil generation see that good land, which I swore to give to your fathers,
 36: Save Caleb the son of Jephunneh (cp. Num. 14:23,24. Josh. 14:9. Judg. 1:20); he shall see it, and to him will I give the land that he has trodden upon, and to his sons, because he has wholly followed the Lord.’
 37: {Also the Lord was angry with me for your sakes (cp. Num. 20:12), saying, ‘You also shall not go in to that place.
 38: But Joshua the son of Nun (see Num. 14:20), which stands before you, he shall go in to that place: encourage him: for he shall cause Israel to inherit it.’}
 39: ‘Moreover your little ones (see Num. 14:31), which you all said should be a prey, and your sons, which in that day had no knowledge between good and evil, they shall go in to that place, and to them will I give it, and they shall possess it.
 40: But as for you, turn you (= face about), and take your journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea’. (the eastern arm, the Gulf of Akabah, cp.v.1)
 41: Then you all answered and said to me (Idiom. In this Idiom the word "answered" receives its meaning from the context. Here = confessed, or repented and said), ‘We have sinned against Yehovah, we will go up and fight (cp. Num. 14:40-42), according to all that the Lord our God commanded us.’ And when you all had girded on every man his weapons of war, you were ready (= presumptuous) to go up into the hill.
 42: And the Lord said to me, ‘Say to them, ‘Go not up, neither fight; for I am not among you; lest you all be smitten before your enemies.’
 43: So I spoke to you; and you all would not hear, but rebelled against the commandment of the Lord (see Num. 14:44,45), and went presumptuously up into the hill.

(11th Sept. 1490)

 44: And the Amorites (cp. Num. 14:43, and see Gen.6:3), which dwelt in that mountain, came out against you, and chased you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even unto Hormah.
 45: And you all returned and wept before the Lord; but the Lord would not listen to your voice, nor give ear to you.

 46: So you all abode in Kadesh many days (this is not a summary of the 38 years' wandering but, of what happened before then. How solemn the word "abode" when the command had been "go up"), according to the days that you all abode there.

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