Acts 18)

1 After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth (probably in the spring of 52 A.D. At this time the political capital of Greece and seat of the Roman proconsul [v.12], as Athens was the literary center. Its situation on an isthmus, with harbors on two seas, Lechaeum and Chenchreae, made it of great commercial importance, goods being transshipped and carried across the isthmus from one harbor to another, as was the case at Suez before the canal was made. Strabo says it was the chief emporium between Asia and Italy. The worship of Aphrodite [Lat.Venus], the same as Ashtoreth [Judg.2:13], was carried on here, with all the Oriental licentiousness, probably introduced by the Phœnicians [1 kings 11:33]. Attached to the temple of Venus were 1,000 courtesans. The word korinthiazomai, to act the Corinthian, was infamous in classical literature. These facts underlie and explain much in the Epistles to the Corinthians, e.g. 1 Cor.5. 6. 7. 9;27; as also the fact that the renowned Isthmian games were held in the Stadium, attached to the temple of Poseidon [Neptune], a short distance from the city. These games, as well as the temples of Athens, Corinth, and elsewhere, supplied Paul with many of the metaphors with which his writings abound.);
2 And having found found a certain Jew by name Aquila (= an eagle. See Rom.16:3. 1 Cor.16:19. 2 Tim.4:19.), a Pontian by race, lately come from Italy, and his wife Priscilla (= ancient. [a diminutive from Prisca]. Aquila is never mentioned apart from his wife. Both these are Latin names. Their Hebrew names are not given.); {because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome (not because they were Christians. This edict was issued early in 52 A.D. in consequence either of disturbances in Rome, caused by Jews, or of Judea itself being almost in the state of rebellion):} and came to them.
3 And because he was of the same craft (Gr. homotechnos. Only here. A word applied by physicians to one another. The medical profession was called healing art [Gr. techne]), he was abiding with them (see 16:15), and was working: as to their craft they were tent-makers (Gr. shenopoios. Only here. Paul never took from the church. They wove the black cloth of goat's and camel's hair of which tents were made. Every Hebrew boy was taught some handicraft. Cp.1 Cor.4:12. 1 Thess.2:9; 4:11. 2 Thess.3:8. "Whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if he brought him up to be a robber").
4 And he reasoned (= taught. See 17:2,17) in the synagogue (in the museum at Corinth is a fragment of a stone with the inscription, [suna]gõge hebr[aiõn] = synagogue of the Hebrews. The letters in the bracket are missing. Its date is said to be between 100 B.C. and 200 A.D.) sabbath by sabbath, and was persuading (or sought to persuade) Jews and the Greeks (Gr. Hellen. See 14:1).
5 Now when Silas and Timotheus came down from Macedonia, Paul was pressed in the word (God was talking through him. Read, was engrossed with or by the word, i.e. his testimony), and earnestly testifying to the Jews [that] Jesus [is] Christ (cp. 1 Cor.1:23. This was to the Jews a horrible "scandal").
6 And when they opposed themselves (Gr. antitassomai, to set in battle array), and blasphemed, he shook (see 13:51) [his] outer garments (cp. 12:8), and said to them, “Your blood [be] upon your own heads; I [am] pure (Gr. katharos, i.e. free from responsibility. Cp. 20:26. Ezek.3:17-21. He was not shy. See v.9): from now I will go to the nations(Gr.ethnos. I.e. in Corinth. See next verse. He still continued to go first to the synagogues in other places. See 19:8 and Introduction to Acts).
7 And he departed from that place, and entered into a certain [man's] house, named Justus (some texts read Titus, or Titius, Justus. See Gal.2:3), [one] that worshiped God, whose house joined hard to the synagogue.
8 And Crispus (see 1 Cor.1:14), the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Messiah with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized (it wasn't him disputing).
9 Then spoke The Lord to Paul in the night by a vision (see 7:31), “Be not afraid, but speak, and be not silent:
10 For I Am with you (Christ is not far from us. He is the Chief Shepherd), and no one shall lay hands on you to do you evil (see 7:6): for I have much people in this city.”
11 And he continued [there] (lit. "sat". fig., "sit" used of a permanent condition) a year and six months (Even with opposition. In 52-53 A.D. During this period Paul wrote 1 Thess. [52 A.D.] and 2 Thess. [53 A.D.], and probably Hebrews. See introductory notes on these Epistles), teaching the word of God among them.
12 And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia (Lit. Gallio being pro consul. Another instance of Luke's accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Augustus, imperial under Tiberius, but after 44 A.D. restored by Claudius to the senate and therefore governed by proconsul. Gallio, brother of Seneca, who was Nero's tutor. Said to be an amiable and gracious man. Achaia was a Kenite = a son of Cain. Test the fruit), the Jews (i.e. the Kenites, not of our brother Judah. See Rev. 2:9; 3:9) made rose up with one accord against Paul (see 1:14), and brought him to the judgment seat (for what he was teaching. Gr. bema. See John 19:13. In the Athenian courts there were two other platforms, for the accuser and the accused),
13 Saying, “This [one] persuades mankind to worship God against the law.” (i.e. Roman law. Obey civil law the best you can)
14 And when Paul was about to open [his] mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If indeed it were an injustice or wicked recklessness, O you Jews, according to reason I would bear with you (i.e. "I might listen"):
15 But if it be a question of a word (Gr. logos) and names (theology), and [of] the law [that is] with you (i.e. the traditions of "man's" church), look you all yourselves [to it]; I will not be a judge of these [matters].” (he could care less)
16 And he drove them from the judgment seat (Gr. apelaunõ. Only here. They probably persisted in their charges and so the lictors were ordered to clear the court. Do you think that is was this man that accomplished this? Not necessarily. Christ used him. Paul didn't even open his mouth. He proves He is the Shepherd. He threw them out!).
17 Then all the Greeks (the texts read, "they all") took Sosthenes (he had apparently succeeded Crispus [v.8]. Cp. 1 Cor.1:1), the chief ruler of the synagogue (headed up by one of the Kenites, see v.12), and beat [him] before the judgment seat (the crowd, to whom the Jews were obnoxious, would e glad to second the work of the lictors). And Gallio cared for none of those things (Lit. none of these things was a concern to Gallio. He refused to interfere in behalf of such troublesome litigants).
18 And Paul [after this] stayed on [there] yet many days,

18:-18-19:12. Ephesus, and Extended Tour in Asia Minor.

R  Y  18:-18-23. Paul. Ministry at Ephesus and elsewhere.
    Z  18:24-28. Apollos. Ministry at Ephesus and in Achaia.
   Y  19:1-12. Paul. Ministry at Ephesus.

18:-18-23. Paul. Ministry at Ephesus, &c.

Y  y  -18. Leaves Corinth (apotassõ).
    z  19,20. Ministry at Ephesus.
   y  21. Leaves Ephesus (apotassõ).
    z  22,23. Ministry at Cæsarea.

and then having taken leave of the brethren (Gr. apotassõ, to set apart. Mid. withdraw. In N.T. always in Mid. Voice. here, v.21. Mark.6:46. Luke 9:61; 14:33. 2 Cor.13), and sailed away (see 15:39) from that place into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila (listed first. She was the teacher in the family); having shaved [his] head in Cenchrea (= millet. This was the part east of Corinth from which place he would set sail): for he had a vow (Gr. euche = a prayer to God; also, a vow made to God. See Num.6:18. It has been questioned whether these words refer to Paul or Aquila. The facts point to Paul, for whichever it was, the ceremonies connected with the vow could only be completed in Jerusalem, and while Paul was hastening his journey to that place [v.21], Aquilla appears to have remained at Ephesus [v.26].).

19 And he (the texts read "they") arrived at Ephesus, and left them there: but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews (Gr. Ioudaios. Has two meanings. 1) = of the blood line of Judah, 2) = a resident of Judea [this includes all who are NOT of the tribe of Judah]. To determine which value to use you must look at the context of the Subject).
20 When they asked [him] to tarry for more time with them, he consented not (to nod forward. A medical term. He didn't give them the nod. Why? He's got a vow to keep!);

21 But bade them farewell (Gr. apotasso, as in v.18 "took his leave"), saying, “I must by all means keep this feast (= Pentecost) that comes in Jerusalem (the texts omit this, but not the Syriac): but I will return (Gr. anakampto, bend back [my steps]) again to you, God (Elohim the Creator, see v.7) being willing.” And he sailed from Ephesus.

22 And having come down to Caesarea, and gone up (i.e. to Jerusalem), and saluted the church, he went down to Antioch.
23 And after he had spent some time [there] (&c. Lit. having made. See 15:13. Many questions there. Probably 3 months It was from Antioch he had gone forth on his first missionary journey; it had happier associations for him than Jerusalem, where they were "all zealous of the law" [21:20]), he departed, and went over [all] the country of Galatia (not the province, but the district) and Phrygia in order (Gr. kathexes. See 3:24), strengthening all the disciples (see 14:22).

24-28. Apollos. Ministry at Ephesus, &c.

Z  A¹  24-26. Ehesus.
   A²  27,28. Achaia.

24-26. Ephesus.

A¹  a  24. Mighty in the Scriptures.
     b  25. Teaching accurately.
    a  26-. Speaking boldly.
     b  -26. Instructed more accurately.

24 And a certain Jew (see v.19) named Apollos (= eloquent, or learned. Shortened from Apollonius. The latter idea is expressed in the next phrase He was a preacher of Scripture), born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, [and] mighty in the scriptures (Gr. dunatos. Said of Moses [7:22]), came to Ephesus.

54 A.D.

25 This one was instructed (Gr. katecheo. See 21:21,24. Luke 1:4. Rom.2:18. Cp. Eng. "catechise") as to the way (see 9:2) of the Lord (see v.8); and being fervent (Gr. zeo, to boil. He was burning zeal) in the spirit (fervent in spirit means spiritually fervent, or exceedingly zealous), he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning the the Lord (the texts read "Jesus", i.e. Yeshua), knowing only the baptism of John (He was close to God. Over 20 years gone by. The word of Christ's crucifixion has not reached here yet. No instant communication. It took time and was dangerous. Just like spreading the True Word of God is getting to be today).
26 And this one began to speak boldly (Gr. parrhesiazomai. See 9:27) in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him to [them], and expounded to him the way of God more accurately (Gr. ektithei, set before him. See 7:21. They filled him in on what happened).
27 And when he wished to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting (Gr. protrepomai. According to the order in the Gr. this refers to Apollos, and it should read, "the brethren, having encouraged him, wrote") the disciples to receive him: who, when he was come, helped them much which had believed through grace (Wisdom must come with understanding. Go for deeper meat. Fulfillment of prophecy. New Testament can be proved by Old.):
28 For he mightily confuted the Jews, [and that] publicly, showing by the scriptures (not by mouth, not by man, but by SCRIPTURES. Zech.9:9. Isa.53) that Jesus is Christ.

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