J a 1-5. Conquests. b 6-. Garrisons in Syria. c -6-. Subjection of Syrians. d -6. Preservation of David. a 7-13. Conquests. b 14-. Garrisons in Syria. c -14-. Subjection of Edomites. d -14. Preservation of David.
2 Samuel 8)
1: And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them (While David was victorious over enemies from the outside, he was defeated by enemies from within. See Chapters 11 & 12): and David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines (= bridle of the metropolis. 1 Chron.18:1 gives us the meaning, and shows that Metheg= bridle or reigns, is put by Fig., for power or government, and Ammah = mother-city: i.e. "Gath and her daughters [i.e. town]".).
2: And he smote Moab (thus fulfilling prophecy. Num.24:17), and allotted (or divided by lot. See note on "line", below: i.e. David divided into two companies those who were to be spared and those who were not) the territory with a line (line, put Fig., for dividing or allotting what was measured with it. Deut. 3:4,13;32:8,9. Josh. 17:6,14. Ps. 19:4. Amos 7:17. Mic. 2:5. 2 Cor. 10:16), casting down the cities (cp. 1 Chron.18:2 ="made them his servants", or vassals) to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death (these were soldiers in arms, not inhabitants), and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's servants, and brought gifts.
3: David smote also Hadarezer (= mighty's help. Cp. 1 Chron. 18:3,5), the son of Rehob, king of Zobah (= station. See Ps.60 [title], and cp. 1 Sam.14:47), as he went to recover his boundry at the river Euphrates (cp. 1 Chron.18:3 and Gen.15:18).
4: And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven hundred horsemen (see note on 1 Kings 4:26), and twenty thousand footmen: and David houghed (hocked, i.e. they cut the hamstrings of the horses to bring them down) all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for an hundred chariots.
5: And when the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men.
6: Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus:
and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought gifts (i.e. tribute).
And the Lord preserved David to whichever place he went.
7: And David took the shields (the Sept. reads "bracelets") of gold that were on the servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.
8: And from Betah, and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceeding much brass.
9: When Toi (= erring. Sept. and Vulg. read "Tou" throughout. Cp. 1 Chron. 18:9. He was a Hittite king) king of Hamath (= fortress. Area of Kenites = the sons of Cain. See Amos 6:14) heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer,
10: Then Toi sent Joram his son to king David, to salute him, and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer, and smitten him: for Hadadezer had wars with Toi (Heb. = "was a man of wars with"). And Joram (= whom Yehovah has exhaled. Sept. reads "Hadoram". Cp. 1 Chron. 18:10) brought with him (Heb. in his hand) vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass: (He was trying to buy his way in. A sign of the Kenites)
11: Which also king David did dedicate to the Lord, with the silver and gold that he had dedicated of all nations which he subdued;
12: Of Syria (Some codices read "Edom"), and of Moab, and of the sons of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek (see Ex. 17:16), and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
13: And David made himself a name when he returned from his smitings (this is David's exploit. In 1 Chron. 18:3,12 it is Abishai's command, while in title of Ps.60 it is Joab's share in the campaign [1 Kings 11:16) of the Syrians in the valley of salt, being eighteen thousand men (this is the total. Joab's share was 12,000, and took 6 months longer. Cp. 1 Kings 11:15,16).
14: And he put garrisons (or political residents) in Edom; throughout all Edom put he garrisons,
and all they of Edom became David's servants.
And the Lord preserved David to whichever place he went. (It wasn't the army or man)
K e 15. David. King. f 16-. Chief captain. g -16. Recorder. h 17-. Priests. g -17. Scribe. f 18-. Captain. e -18. David's sons.
15: And David reigned over all Israel; and David executed judgment and justice to all his People. (He did it fairly)
16: And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the host;
and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder (=remembrancer);
17: And Zadok (= just. Probably served at Gibeon. Cp. 1 Chron. 18:16) the son of Ahitub, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar (named after his grandfather [1 Sam. 21:1; 22:9,16), were the priests;
and Seraiah (= sheeted with snow, Like whitewash?) was the scribe (the first occ. of this title. Heb. sõphîr, a counter. Individual scribes held high positions as associates of the High Priests, and of the commander-in-chief. They were amanuenses, registrars, accountants [1 Kings 12:10]; adjutants [2 Kings 25:19]; secretaries of state [2 Sam. 8:17. Isa.33:18]; a branch of the Levites [2 Chron. 34:13]. When Priests, who should have been teachers of the Law [Deut.17:11; 33:10], became asorbed in ritual, the Scribes became custodians. Ezra was an ideal priest and scribe);
18: And Benaiah (= made by the Lord. Cp. 23:20) the son of Jehoiada was over both the Cherethites and the Pelethites (David's body-guard);
and David's sons were chief rulers. (Here ends the prosperous part of David's reign)