5:1 – 24:25. Kingdom United.

  E  5:1-25. David's accession over Israel.
     F  H  6:1–7:29. Worship.
         J  8:1-14. David's mighty acts.
          G  K  8:15-18. David's officers.
              L  9:1–10:5. David's kindness.
               M  10:6–20:22. Wars and events.
          G  K  20:23-26. David's officers.
              L  21:1-14. David's zeal.
               M  21:15-22. Wars and events.
     F  H  22:1–23:7. Worship.
         J  23:8-39. David's mighty men.
    E  24:1-25. David's sin. Numbering Israel.

5:1-25. David's Accession.

E  N  a  1-3. King anointed.
       b  4,5. Hebron. Reign.
        c  6-8. Jebusites expelled.
         O  d  9. City of David.
             e  10. Greetings of king.
         O  d  11. House of David.
             e  12-. Establishment of King.
   N  a  -12. Kingdom exalted.
       b  13-16. Hebron. Family.
        c  17-25. Philistine vanquished.

960-953 B.C.

2 Samuel )

1: Then came all the tribes of Israel to David to Hebron, and spoke, saying, “Behold, we are your bone and your flesh. (One of the keys of David)
2: Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, you were he that led out and brought in Israel (another part of the key of David: He was a leader of Israel): and the Lord said to you, ‘You shall feed as a shepherd My people Israel (another part of the key of David: a shepherd), and you shall be a captain over Israel.’ ”
3: So all the elders of Israel (this includes all 12 tribes) came to the king to Hebron; and king David solemnized a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord: and they anointed David king over Israel (This was just a formality saying they accepted him. See 1 Sam. 16:13).

960 to 920 B.C.

4: David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
5: In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years (another part of the key of David, type of Christ. #33 = promise. The age at which Christ fulfilled God's promise and brought salvation to whomsoever would believe in Him) over all Israel and Judah.

6: And the king and his men went to Jerusalem to the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spoke to David, saying, “You shall not come in to this place, for the blind and the lame shall drive you away by saying, ‘David shall not come in to this place:’ ” thinking, David cannot come in to that place.
7: Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion (i.e the hill of Ophel, immediately south of Moriah. Zion, first Occ. 154 times in O.T. [7 x 22 = Spiritual perfection X Light]; used later [especially in prophecy] of the whole city. See description below v.8): the same is the City of David (Which is on Jebus, therefore, and not on the west side. First occ. Occurs 40 times in the O.T. [#40 = probation]. Used of Zion 5 times [#5 = grace. 2 Sam. 5:7,9. 1 Kings 8:1. 1 Chron. 11:5. 2 Chron. 5:2]).
8: And David said on that day, “Whosoever gets up to the gutter (= by or through the zinnor, a rock-cut passage from the lower Gihon or En-Rogel [now the Virgin's Fount on east of Ophel], leading up into the city and supplying water. Discovered by Sir Charles Warren. Cp. Neh. 2:13, &c.), and smites the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David's soul, he shall be chief and captain.” (these words are supplied from 1 Chron. 11:6, which tell that Joab got up the zinnor first. Probably revealed to him [or to David] by Araunah, who [though a Jebusite] was not slain, but is found later on, owning property quite near [24:16]. Josephus says Araunah was a friend of David's) Wherefore they said, “The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.”


I. Ophel, or "The City of David"

That Zion (Heb.) or Sion (Greek) was "the City of David" is clear from 2 Sam. 5:7. That Ophel and Zion are equivalent names applied to the highest point or mound of the hill ridge running due south from Mount Moriah is now generally conceded.
That Zion was the name of the original Jebusite fortress on this summit, almost directly above Gibon (now known as "the Virgin's Fount"), is also accepted by the majority of the authorities on the topography of Jerusalem.
It therefore becomes necessary to readjust some of the place-names which have been given to Zion on the west side of Jerusalem on traditional accounts (which, from the time of Josephus onwards, have located Zion on the south-western hill of the city), and to transfer them to a Zion south of Mount Moriah.
This readjustment will transfer the name to the true site and satisfy the requirement of fulfilled prophecy, which declares that “Zion shall be plowed as a field" (Jer. 26:18. Micah 3:12). This is true of the site now claimed for it; but is not wholly true of the traditional site on the south-west side of Jerusalem, which still has buildings upon it.
The general plan from the Ordinance Map of Jerusalem, from the survey by Sir Charles Wison, shows Moriah now occupied by Haram ash Sharif, i.e. "The noble Sanctuary", which stands on its rectangular "platform" about the center of what is known as "the Haram area". This and the other more or less ancient and modern buildings are shown on that survey map.
Immediately to the south lies the ridged hill on the summit or "swelling" of which stood the Jebusite fortress or citadel of Zion (or Ophel), from which the whole area immediately adjoining took its name, when captured by David, as "the City of David". Both name and title became in later times ascribed to the whole area of the city of Jerusalem.
The key to a right understanding of the whole question concerning the correct location of Zion is undoubtedly the spring in the O.T. known as Gihon (the modern name being "The Virgin's Fount"), with its underground rock-hewn conduit constructed by Hezekiah to convey the waters of the Fount to the Pool of Siloam within the enclosing wall of the city.
Starting from the S.E. angle of the "Haram area", this enclosing wall ran southward on the steep slope of the Zion or Ophel Hill, till it reached a point south of "the Old Pool" (Isa.22:11). From that place, turning sharply almost due north., the wall was carried round the bottom of the western slope of the Zion Hill, and ran N.E. till it reached the south-westerly end of Moriah, at the corner of the present "Haran area"; from that place due east till it completed the circuit at the S.E. corner of the Haram.

On the plan a point is, marked at the south end of the conduit, as "Warren's Shaft". In His “Recovery of Jerusalem", Sir Charles Warren tells us that "at 450 feet from the Siloam end....we found a shaft leading upwards apparently to the open air". This is of great importance, as it alters considerably the conjectured line of wall that is shown on the P.E.F. plans running due north up the east slope of Ophel, from the great masonry dam below the Old Pool. This shaft must have been within the city wall. Therefore, as 450 feet from the exit at Siloam locates it as being beyond the first bend in the serpentine course of the conduit, the city wall must necessarily have been carried up at least 100 feet nearer to the east, and probably in the position it is shown in the plan.

II. The Jebusite Water-Supply.

The rock-hewn conduit from Gihon (or the Virgin's Fount) is shown with remarkable accuracy on the Ordinace Survey maps. If, as it is confidently asserted, Gihon (or the well-spring or Fount of the Virgin) is the only spring in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem, then Melchizek, King of Salem, and , later, the Jebusites, would be in possession of the only unfailing water-supply of the district. That the Jebusites had access to this well or spring from within their wall and fortress is clear: but, in the end, it proved ther undoing, for David's men obtained possession of Jebus by means of the tzinnőr (A.V. "gutter"), i.e. the channel and shaft leading from the well into their citadel. (See 2 Sam. 5:6-8 and 1 Chron. 11:6).
The spring is intermittent, overflowing periodically, thus pointing to the existence of either a natural chasm or reservoir, or a made reservoir, whose site is at present unknown. Possibly it is under Mount Moriah itself. Tradition has much to say as a deep well with an unfailing water-supply beneath the Temple are. (Cp. Ps.46:4).
The fortress or citadel of Zion was immediately above this well-spring, and its defenders could thus command their water-supply from within, and also the security of the sourse outside.
Before the time of Hezekiah, "the City of David" was dependent on its source for its water-supply in times of danger threatened from outside, in the same manner that the Jebusites were, namely they descended from Ophel by means of rock-hewn passages, with steps and slopes (still in existence) till they reached the top of Warren's Shaft, and by means of buckets drew their water from the unfailing well-spring some 40 to 50 feet below. At the top of this shaft is still to be seen the iron ring employed for this purpose.

9: So David dwelt in the strong hold (of v.7. The Citadel), and called it the city of David. And David built the wall (which was continued by Solomon [1 Kings 9:15,24; 11:27], afterward by Hezekiah [2 Chron.32:5], and extended by Manasseh [2 Chron.33:14]) from the Millo and inward (or the filling up:, i.e. of the valley between Moriah and Jebus).

10: And David went on and on, and grew great, and the Lord God of hosts (Yehovah Elohim Sabaioth) was with him.

11: And Hiram (= noble. Not the Hiram of 1 Kings 9:11, which was 60 years later. Josephus says he was his father. Cp. 2 Chron. 2:13. 1 Kings 5:1) king of Tyre sent messengers to David (Israel had no war with Phśnicians. Asher failed to expel them [Judg.1:31), and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.

12: And David perceived that the Lord had established him king over Israel,

and that He had exalted his kingdom for His People Israel's sake (not necessarily of David's sake).

13: And David took him more concubines and wives into Jerusalem, after he was come from Hebron: and there were yet sons and daughters born to David.
14: And these be the names of those that were born to him in Jerusalem; Shammua (= renowned), and Shobab (= rebellious), and Nathan (= a giver), and Solomon (= peaceful),
15: Ibhar also (= whom God chooses), and Elishua (= God is my salvation), and Nepheg (= sprout), and Japhia (= splendid),
16: And Elishama (= whom God hears), and Eliada (= known by God. Also = another name, Beeliada. See 1 Chron.14:7), and Eliphalet (= the God of deliverance).

17-25. Philistines Vanquished.

c  f  17,18. Positions of Philistines.
    g  19. Inquiry of Yahaveh.
     h  20,21. Defeat.
   f  22. Position of Philistines.
    g  23,24. Inquiry of Yahaveh.
     h  25. Defeat.

953 B.C.

17: But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David (cp. 1 Sam.26:2); and David heard of it, and went down to the hold (probably Adullam. 1 Sam. 22:1. Not Zion, because he went "down" to it).
18: The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim (the descendants of the Nephilim through one "Rapha". See Gen. 6:2,4).

19: And David inquired of the Lord (see 1 Chron. 14:10), saying, “Shall I go up to the Philistines? will You deliver them into my hand?” And the Lord said to David, “Go up: for I will doubtless deliver the Philistines into your hand.”

20: And David came to Baal-perazim (= lord of divisions), and David smote them there, and said, “The Lord has broken forth upon my enemies before me, as the breach of waters.” Therefore he called the name of that place Baal-perazim.
21: And there they left their images, and David and his men burned them. (articles of false religion. Get rid of the traditions of men)

952 B.C. 22: And the Philistines came up yet again, and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.

23: And when David inquired of the Lord, he said, “You shall not go up; but fetch a compass (= encircle) behind them, and come upon them over against the mulberry trees.
24: And let it be, when you hear the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees (God's army in another dimension), that then you shall go out yourself: for then shall the Lord go out before you, to smite the host of the Philistines.”

25: And David did so, as the Lord had commanded him; and smote the Philistines from Gibeon until you come to Gazer (see Chron. 14:16. About 30-35 miles).

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