19:1-8. Sorrow Restrained.

Q²  h¹  1. Mourning of David.
     i¹  2,3. People. Sympathy with the king.
    h²  4. Mourning of David.
     i²  5-7. Joab. Remonstrance with the king.
    h³  8. Mourning of David and the People.

933 B.C.

2 Samuel 19)

1: And it was told Joab, “Behold, the king weeps and mourns for Absalom.”

2: And the victory that day was turned into mourning to all the People: for the People heard say that day how the king was grieved for his son.
3: And the People got them by stealth that day into the city, according as People being ashamed steal away when they flee in battle.

4: But the king covered his face (symbol of mourning), and the king cried with a loud voice, “O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son! (cp. 18:33)

5: And Joab came into the house to the king, and said, “You have shamed this day the faces of all your servants, which this day have saved your soul, and the souls of your sons and of thy daughters, and the souls of your wives, and the souls of your concubines;
6: In that you love your enemies, and hate your friends. For you have made clear this day, that you regard neither princes nor servants: for this day I perceive, that if Absalom had lived, and all we had died this day, then it had pleased you well.
7: Now (Fig., to emphasis the completeness of Joab's reasoning) therefore arise, go forth, and speak comfortably (Heb. ‘al-lêb, to the heart. Cp. Isa.40:2) to your servants: for I swear by the Lord, if you go not forth, there will not tarry one with you this night: and that will be worse to you than all the evil that befell you from your youth until now.”

8: Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told to all the People, saying, “Behold, the king does sit in the gate.” And all the people came before the king: for Israel had fled every man to his tent (note this name for Absalom' forces [17:24,26; 18:6,7]).

9-15. David. Return.

L  j  9,10. King's return. Desired.
    k  11,12. Message to Judah.
    k  13. Message to Amasa.
   j  14,15. King's return. Accomplished.

9: And all the People were at strife throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, “The king saved us out of the hand of our enemies, and he delivered us out of the hand of the Philistines; and now he is fled out of the land for Absalom.
10: And Absalom, whom we anointed over us, is dead in battle. Now therefore why speak you all not a word of bringing the king back?”

11: And king David sent to Zadok and to Abiathar the priests, saying, “Speak to the elders of Judah, saying, ‘Why are you all the last to bring the king back to his house? seeing the speech of all Israel is come to the king, even to his house.
12: You all are my brethren, you all are my bones and my flesh : why then are you all the last to bring back the king?’

13: And say you all to Amasa, ‘Are you not of my bone, and of my flesh? (i.e. my near relation = my nephew [17:25]. Son of David's sister Abigail [1 Chron.2:17]) Elohim do so to me, and more also, if you be not captain of the host before me continually in the room of Joab.’ ”

14: And he bowed the heart of all the men of Judah, even as the heart of one man; so that they sent this word to the king, “Return you, and all your servants.”
15: So the king returned, and came to Jordan. And Judah came to Gilgal (here Samuel renewed the kingdom. 1 Sam.11:14. Cp. Josh.5:9; 9:6; 10:6. 1 Sam. 7:16; 15:33), to go down to meet the king, to conduct the king over Jordan.

16-30. Shimei, Ziba, and Mephibosheth.

M  l  16. Shimei. Reception.
    m  17,18-. Ziba. Deception.
   l  -18-23. Shimei. Forgiveness.
    m  24-30. Ziba. Discovery.

16: And Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjamite, which was of Bahurim, hasted and came down with the men of Judah to meet king David.

17: And there were a thousand men of Benjamin with him, and Ziba the servant of the house of Saul, and his fifteen sons and his twenty servants with him; and they went over Jordan before the king.
18: And there went over a ferry boat to carry over the king's household, and to do what he thought good.

-18-23. Shimei. Forgiveness.

l  n  -18-20. Shimei. Confession.
    o  21. Abishai. Resentment.
    o  22. Abishai. Resented.
   n  23. Shimei. Forgiveness.

And Shimei the son of Gera fell down before the king, as he was come over Jordan;
19: And said to the king, “Let not my lord impute iniquity to me, neither do you remember that which your servant did perversely the day that my lord the king went out of Jerusalem, that the king should take it to his heart.
20: For your servant does know that I have sinned: therefore, behold, I am come the first this day of all the house of Joseph to go down to meet my lord the king.” (Put by Fig., for the 2 tribes Ephraim and Manasseh, or for the 10 tribes, Israel [Amos 5:6,12; 6:6. Obad.18. Zech.10:6]. Cp. v.43. In Ps.80:1 and 81:5, Joseph is put for the 12 tribes)

21: But Abishai the son of Zeruiah answered and said (always the impetuous one. 1 Sam.26:8. 2 Sam.16:9), “Shall not Shimei be put to death for this, because he cursed the Lord's anointed?”

22: And David said, “What have I to do with you (see 16:10), all you sons of Zeruiah, that you all should this day be adversaries (Heb. satan) to me? shall there any man be put to death this day in Israel? for do not I know that I am this day king over Israel?”

23: Therefore the king said to Shimei, “You shall not die.” And the king swore to him.

24-30. Ziba. Discovery.

m  p  24. Mephibosheth. Mourning.
    q  25. David. Reproach.
     r  26. Ziba. Deception.
     r  27,28. Ziba. Slander.
    q  29. David. Reparation.
   p  30. Mephibosheth. Comfort.

24: And Mephibosheth the grandson of Saul came down to meet the king, and had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes (a Symbol and proof of great grief), from the day the king departed until the day he came again in peace.

25: And it came to pass, when he was come to Jerusalem to meet the king, that the king said to him, “Why went you not with me, Mephibosheth?”

26: And he answered, “My lord, O king, my servant deceived me: for your servant said, ‘I will saddle me an ass (the Sept. reads "Saddle for me the ass". A command which Ziba disobeyed, and went off himself instead. But was there only one ass in Jerusalem? See v.29), that I may ride thereon, and go with the king; because your servant is lame.

27: And he has slandered your servant to my lord the king; but my lord the king is as an angel of God: do therefore what is good in your eyes.
28: For all of my father's house were but dead men before my lord the king (some codices read "When in all the house of my father were none other than dead men" [Heb. men of death, i.e. doomed men]): yet did you set your servant among them that did eat at your own table. What right therefore have I yet to cry any more to the king?” (to emphasize the free grace of David)

29: And the king said to him, “Why do you speak any more of your matters? (Fig., to show disatisfaction with Mephibosheth's defense. Hence his division of Saul's estate) I have said (cp. 9:10. David revokes 16:4, and falls back on 9:10), ‘You and Ziba (cp. 16:4) divide the land.’ ” (i.e. Saul's estate<)

30: And Mephibosheth said to the king, “Yes, let him take all, now that my lord the king is come again in peace to his own house.”

31-43. Jerusalem. David's Re-Entry.

N  a  31-38. Barzillai.
    b  39-. The People.
   a  -39,40-. Barzillai.
    b  -40-43. The People.

31: And Barzillai (= iron, i.e. strong) the Gileadite came down from Rogelim, and went over Jordan with the king, to conduct him over Jordan.
32: Now Barzillai was a very aged man, even eighty years old: and he had provided the king of sustenance while he lay at Mahanaim; for he was a very great man.
33: And the king said to Barzillai, “Come you over with me, and I will feed you with me in Jerusalem.”
34: And Barzillai said to the king, “How long have I to live, that I should go up with the king to Jerusalem?
35: I am this day eighty years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can your servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? why then should your servant be yet a burden to my lord the king?
36: your servant will go a little way over Jordan with the king: and why should the king recompense it me with such a reward?
37: Let your servant, I pray you, turn back again, that I may die in my own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and of my mother. But behold your servant Chimham; let him go over with my lord the king; and do to him what shall seem good to you.”
38: And the king answered, “Chimham(= longing) shall go over with me, and I will do to him that which shall seem good to you: and whatsoever you shall require of me, that will I do for you.”

39: And all the People went over Jordan.

And when the king was come over, the king kissed Barzillai, and blessed him; and he returned to his own place.
40: Then the king went on to Gilgal, and Chimham went on with him:

-40-43. The People.

t  u¹  -40. Judah and Israel.
    v¹  41. Israel. Complaint.
   u²  42. Judah. Answer.
    v²  43-. Israel. Complaint.
   u³  -43. Judah and Israel. Prevalence.

and all the People of Judah conducted the king, and also half the People of Israel. (a whole-hearted act on part of Judah: and a half-hearted act on the part of Israel. This explains what follows)

41: And, behold, all the men of Israel came to the king, and said to the king, “Why have our brethren the men of Judah stolen you away, and have brought the king, and his household, and all David's men with him, over Jordan?”

42: And all the men of Judah answered the men of Israel, “Because the king is near of kin to us: why then be you all angry for this matter? have we eaten at all of the king's cost? or has he given us any gift?”

43: And the men of Israel answered the men of Judah, and said, “We have ten parts in the king, and we have also more right in David than you all: why then did you all despise us, that our advice should not be first had in bringing back our king?”

And the words of the men of Judah were fiercer than the words of the men of Israel.

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