13:1-25. Israel.

E5  H¹  1-9. Jehoahaz.
    H²  10-25. Jehoash.

1-9. Jehoahaz.

H¹  s  1. Introduction.
     t  2. Events. Personal.
     t  3-7. Events. Political.
    s  8,9. Conclusion.

759-742 B.C.

2 Kings 13)

1 In the twenty-third year of Joash the son of Ahaziah king of Judah Jehoahaz the son of Jehu began to reign over Israel in Samaria (see v.10), [and reigned] seventeen years.

2 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord, and followed the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin (see 1 Kings 14:16); he departed not therefrom.

3 And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hand of Hazael king of Syria, and into the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael, all [his] days (cp. 22-25).
4 And Jehoahaz besought the Lord, and the Lord listened to him: for he saw the oppression of Israel, because the king of Syria oppressed them.
5 {And the Lord gave Israel a savior (some think an angel; some, Elisha; some, a general of Jehoahaz), so that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians: and the sons of Israel dwelt in their tents, as beforetime.
6 Nevertheless they departed not from the sins of the house of (some codices omit this) Jeroboam, who made Israel sin, [but] walked Heb. "he [Israel] walked") therein (Heb. in it: i.e. in Jeroboam's way; but some codices read "in them"): and there stood the grove (= the ’Asherah. See Deut.6:21) also in Samaria.}
7 Neither did he leave of the People to Jehoahaz but fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria had destroyed them, and had made them like the dust by threshing (a powerful emblem, true to Eastern life).

8 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoahaz, and all that he did, and his might, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
9 And Jehoahaz slept with his fathers (see Deut. 31:16); and they buried him in Samaria: and Joash (or Johoash) his son reigned in his stead (i.e. alone).

10-25. Jehoash.

H²  u  10. Introduction.
     v  11. Events. Personal.
    u  12,13. Conclusion.
     v  14-25. Events. Political.

745 to 729 B.C.

10 In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign (Joash [of Israel] became king in the 37th year of Joash [of Judah]. Amaziah, son of Joash [of Judah], became king in the 2nd year of Joash [of Israel]. 14:1. Therefore Amaziah became associate king in the 39th year of Joash of Judah: i.e. one year before Joash died, for "he reigned forty years in Jerusalem" [2 Chron.24:1]. The cause of Amaziah's kingship in Joash's lifetime is not named in Kings, but we see it in the "deseases" of 2 Chron. 24:25) over Israel in Samaria (i.e. in consort with his father. Cp. 14:1), [and reigned] sixteen years.

11 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord; he departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel sin: [but] he walked therein.

12 And the rest of the acts of Joash, and all that he did, and his might wherewith he fought against Amaziah king of Judah, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
13 And Joash slept with his fathers; and Jeroboam sat upon his throne: and Joash was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel.

14-25. Events. Political.

v  w¹  14-21. Domestic.
   w²  22-25. Foreign.

743 B.C.

14 Now Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness whereof he died (Elisha's long ministry of 66 years was now drawing to a close, after 45 years' silence. We hear of no sickness o Elijah). And Joash the king of Israel came down unto him, and wept over his face, and said, “O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel (a memory of 2:12, wondering whether his end would be like Elijah's), and the horsemen thereof.”
15 And Elisha said to him, “Take bow and arrows.” And he took to him bow and arrows.
16 And he said to the king of Israel, “Put your hand upon the bow.” And he put his hand [upon it]: and Elisha put his hands upon the king's hands.
17 And he said, “Open the window eastward.” And he opened [it]. Then Elisha said, “Shoot.” And he shot. And he said, “The arrow of the Lord's deliverance (the arrow put for the deliverance Yahaveh would give), and the arrow of deliverance from Syria: for you shall smite the Syrians in Aphek, till you have consumed [them].”
18 And he said, “Take the arrows.” And he took [them]. And he said to the king of Israel, “Smite upon the ground.” And he smote thrice, and stayed.
19 And the man of God was wroth with him, and said, “you should have smitten five or six times; then had you smitten Syria till you had consumed [it]: whereas now you shall smite Syria [but] thrice.”
20 And Elisha died (he was called in the days of Ahab [1 Kings 19:19], and ministered 40 years), and they buried him. And the bands of the Moabites invaded the land at the coming in of the year (i.e. spring. Cp. 2 Sam.11:1).
21 And it came to pass, as they were burying a man (probably those who were evading the Moabite marauders), that, behold, they spied a band [of men]; and they cast the man into the sepulchre of Elisha: and when the man was let down, and touched the bones of Elisha, he lived (the 16th miracle, see 2:15), and stood up on his feet.
22 But Hazael king of Syria oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz.
23 But the Lord was gracious to them, and had compassion on them, and had respect to them, because of His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and would not destroy them, neither cast he them from His presence as yet.
24 So Hazael king of Syria died; and Ben-hadad his son reigned in his stead (probably the third of that name. Cp. 1 Kings 15:18; 20:1).
25 And Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz took again out of the hand of Ben-hadad the son of Hazael the cities, which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father in the war. Three times did Joash beat him (according to v.18), and recovered the cities of Israel.

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