The *Second Book of Kings.

*see note on first Book

802 to 800 B.C.

2 Kings 1)

1 Then Moab rebelled against Israel (Moab had been subdued by David [2 Sam. 8:2; 23:20]; and when the kingdom was divided it went to Israel. It was greatly oppressed by Omri and Ahab, and, on the death of the later [cp. 3:5], Mesha, king of Moab, rebelled. See record of the event on "the Moabite stone" [see below] The verse is introduced here to complete the symmetry of the introversion. See "G" in the Structure on 1 Kings 22:51) after the death of Ahab (the inscription on the Moabite stone leaves the exact date indefinite. Line 5, "Israel perished", may refer to the death of Ahab).

The Moabite Stone

(Appendix 54 of the Companion Bible)

This ancient monument was discovered by the Rev. F. Klein in 1868 at D b n (the Dibon of the O.T.) in Moab.
The inscription consists of 34 lines (the last 2 being undecipherable), and was written by Misha king of Moab to commemorate his successful revolt from the yoke of Israel, recorded in 2 Kings 1:1 and Chapter 3; and to honor his god Chemosh, to whom he ascribed his success.
The writing is in the ancient Hebrew characters, which continued in use down to 140, 139 B.C., but was gradually replaced by the modern square Hebrew characters which are in use today.
The inscription is proved to be genuine by the Bible account, the two throwing light on each other. See 2 Kings 3.
The following translation, by Dr. Neubauer, is taken from "Records of the past" (New Series), Vol.II,pp.200, &c.

1. I, Mesha son of Chemosh-Melech King of Moab, the Di-
2. bonite. My father reigned over Moab thirty years and I reign-
3. ed after my father. I made this monument to Chemosh at Korkah. A monument of sal-
4. vation, for he saved me from all invaders, and let me see my desire upon all my enemies. Om-
5. ri [was] king of Israel, and he oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry with his
6. land. His son followed him, and he also said: I will oppose Moab. In my days Che[mosh] said;
7. I will see my desire on him and his house. And all Israel shall perish forever. Omri took the land of
8. Medeba and [Israel] dwelt in it during his days and half the days of his son , altogether forty years. But there dwelt in it
9. Chemosh in my days. I built Baal-Meon and made therein the ditches; I built

Num. 21:30; Isa. 15:2. "son" = successor Now, Tell M ain, Num. 32:38. Josh. 13:17

10. Kirjathaim . The men of Gad dwelt in the land of Ataroth from of old, and built there the kings of
11. Israel Ataroth; and I made war against the town and seized it. And I slew all the [people of]
12. the town, for the pleasure of Chemosh and Moab: I captured from that place Arel of Dodah and tore

Num. 32:37. Josh 13:19. Num. 32:3. Josh. 16:2. Arel, two lions, or, lion-like men (?) Cp. 2 Sam. 23:20.

13. Him before Chemosh in Kerioth : And I placed therein he men of Sh[a]r[o]n, and the men
14. of M[e]kh[e]rth. And Chemosh said to me: Go, seize Nebo upon Israel; and
15. I went in the night and fought against it from the break of day until noon: and I took
16. it, and slew all, 7,000 men, [boys?], women, [girls?]
17. And female slaves, for to Ashtar-Chemosh I devoted them. And I took from it the Arels of Yahveh, and tore them before Chemosh. And the king of Israel built
18. Jahaz , and dwelt in it, while he waged war against me; Chemosh drove him out before me. And
19. I took from Moab 200 men, all chiefs, and transported them to Jahaz, which I took
20. to add to it Didon. I built Korkhah, the wall of the forests ad the wall
21. of the citadel: I built its gates, and I built its towers. And
22. I built the house of Mloch, and I made sleices of the water-ditches in the middle
23. of the town. And there was no cistern in the middle of the town of Korkhah, and I said to all the people, Make for
24. yourselves every man a cistern in his house. And I dug the canals for Korkhah by means of the prisoners

Now, Khan el Kureitin (?) Jer. 48:24. Amos 2:2. Num. 32:338. Isa.15:2. Isa. 15:4.

25. of Israel. I built Aroeri, and I made the road in[the province of] the Arnon. [And]
26. I built Beth-Bamoth , for it was destroyed. I built Bezer , for in ruins
27. it was. And all the chiefs] of Dibon were 50, for all Dibon is subject; and I placed
28. one hundred [chiefs] in the town which I added to the land: I built

Now, Ar air, Deut. 2:36; 3:12; 4:48. Num. 21:19. Isa.15:2 (A.V. "high places"), cp. Josh. 13:17. Deut.4:43.

29. Beth-Medeba and Beth-diblathaim and Beth-Baal-Meon , and transported thereto the [shepherds]?...
30. and the pastors] of the flocks of the land. And at Horonaim dwelt there
31. ... And Chemosh said to me, Go down, make war upon Horonaim. I went down [and made war]
32 ... And Chemosh dwelt in it during my days. I went up from that place ..."

Jer. 48:22. Josh. 13:17. Jer. 48:23. Isa. 15:5. Jer. 48:3,5,34.

2-16. Ahaziah. Personal Evil-Doing.

F  H  a  2. Mission to Baal-zebub.
       b  3. Reproof of Elijah.
        c  4. Assurance of death.
         J  5. Messengers. Inquiry.
         J  6-8. Messengers. Report.
   H  a  9-15. Missions to Elijah.
       b  16-. Reproof of Elijah.
        c  -16. Assurance of death.

2 And Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber that [was] in Samaria (= network or balustrade, which protected the open window of the open chamber . Cp. Judg. 30:20; 5:28. 1 Kings 17:19. 2 Kings 4:10.), and was sick: and he sent messengers, and said to them, Go, inquire of Baal-zebub the god (= lord of flies. Later Jews polluted it by changing it to Beel-zebul [Lord of dung or dunghills]. In Matt.12:24 it is in Greek Baal-zebul lord of abominable idols; the prince of idols and idolatry; the worst chief of all wickedness. Imagine the blasphemy) of Ekron (= torn up by roots, emigration. One of the 5 Philistine cities. Josh.13:3) whether I shall recover of this disease.

3 But the Angel of the Lord (see Ex.3:2. He Who directs Moses directs Elijah) said to Elijah (= EL [God] is Yah [or Yahaveh]) the Tishbite (= recourse), Arise, go up to meet the messengers of the king of Samaria (watch-mountain), and say to them, [Is it] not because [there is] not an God in Israel, [that] you all go to inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron?

4 Now therefore thus says the Lord, You shall not come down from that bed on which you are gone up, but shall surely die (same as Gen.2:17). And Elijah departed.

5 And when the messengers turned back to him, he said to them, Why are you all now turned back?

6 And they said to him, There came a man up to meet us, and said to us, Go, turn again to the king that sent you, and say to him, Thus says the Lord, [Is it] not because [there is] not an God (Elohim) in Israel, [that] you send to inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron? therefore you shall not come down from that bed on which you are gone up, but shall surely die.
7 And he said to them, What manner of man [was he] which came up to meet you, and told you these words?
8 And they answered him, [He was] an hairy man (= clad in a garment consisting of a skin. Prophets wore coarse clothing [Zech.13:4. Matt.3:4.), and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins (Worn by Palestinian peasants today). And he said, It [is] Elijah the Tishbite.

9 Then the king sent to him a captain of fifty with his fifty. And he went up to him: and, behold, he sat on the top of an hill. And he spoke to him, You man of God (the people's name for a prophet.), the king has said, Come down.
10 And Elijah answered and said to the captain of fifty, If I [be] a man of God, then let fire come down from heaven, and consume you and your fifty. (quoted in Luke 9:54) And there came down fire from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty.
11 Again also he sent to him another captain of fifty with his fifty. And he answered and said to him, O man of God, thus has the king said, Come down quickly.
12 And Elijah answered and said to him, If I [be] a man of God, let fire come down from heaven, and consume you and your fifty. And the fire of God came down from heaven (some codices omit "of Elohim" as in v.10), and consumed him and his fifty.
13 And he sent again a captain of the third fifty with his fifty. And the third captain of fifty went up, and came and fell on his knees before Elijah, and besought him, and said to him, O man of God, I pray you, let my soul, and the soul of these fifty your servants, be precious in your sight.
14 Behold, there came fire down from heaven, and consumed the two captains of the former fifties with their fifties: therefore let my soul now be precious in your sight.
15 And the Angel of the Lord) said to Elijah, Go down with him: be not afraid of him. And he arose, and went down with him to the king.

16 And he said to him, Thus says the Lord, Forasmuch as you have sent messengers to inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron, [is it] not (or "was it ") because [there is] no God in Israel to inquire of His word?

therefore you shall not come down off that bed on which you are gone up, but shall surely die.

17 So he died according to the word of the Lord which Elijah had spoken. And Jehoram reigned in his stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah; because he had no son.
18 Now the rest of the acts of Ahaziah which he did, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?

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