A  1:1,2. Introduction.
 B  B  E  1:3-11. Thanksgiving.
        F  1:12. Character of Paul's Ministry.
         D  G  1:13,14. The Present Epistle.
             H  K  1:15,16. Proposed Visit.
                 L  1:17-2:2. Vindication of his Action.
                  J  M  O  2:3-11. Former Epistle. Object.
                         P  2:12,13-. No Rest in Spirit.
                          N  2:-13. Macedonia. Journey.
 B  C  E  2:14-17. Thanksgiving.
        F  3:1-7:4. Character of Paul's Ministry.
         D        J  M   P  7:5-7. No Rest in Flesh.
                        O  7:8-16. Former Epistle. Effect.
                          N  8:1-9:15. Macedonia. Assemblies.
             H   L  10:1-12:13. Vindication on his Action.
                K  12:14-13:1. Purposed Visit.
            G  13:2-10. The Present Epistle.
A  13:11-14. Conclusion.

  1. From various passages we learn that the apostle Paul wrote this Epistle under much pressure of spirit. The personal part of his first letter to the Corinthians had had its effect upon the obedient members of the church [see ch. 2 and 7], and he wrote a 2nd time to comfort such, as well as to warn a disobedient element [13:2,10]. It is plain that certain altogether denied his authority, and in ch. 10-13 he once more powerfully vindicates his apostleship, especially in connection with the false teachers, against whom he earnestly warned the Corinthians. The specific claim of authority as proceeding from his Lord and Master alone occupies a large part of the Epistle. Hence, also, the admonition that if he came he would enforce that authority. There is much to indicate Paul's anxiety for all the churches, while in the doctrinal portions occur some unsurpassed presentations of the Divine love in Christ.

  2. Not only was this church burdened with internal trouble [ch. 1], but they had trials also from outside [11:13-15], just as the Lord Himself had foretold in Matt. 24:9-12. In consolation, Paul held out before them [4:14] the same hope of resurrection of the Divine love in Christ.

  3. Timothy had been sent to Corinth [1 Cor. 4:17] and had no doubt returned bearing news of the unhappy condition of the church. Titus delivered the 1st letter and, there being some delay in his return, Paul passed from Troas to Macedonia, where, later, Titus brought from Corinth [7:7-16] such reports as only partially assured the apostle, and led him to send the Second Epistle by the same fellow worker.

  4. Various explanations have proposed with regards to the conditions under which the Epistle was written. Some think that, prior to its transmission, the apostle had sent by the hand of Timothy a severe letter which had been lost. Another suggestion is that Paul, hearing the confusion in the church, made a hasty visit to Corinth from Ephesus, and, finding that he availed nothing but rather was set at naught, withdrew to another part of Achaia or to Macedonia, where he penned the Second Epistle. Still other views on similar lines are put forward, but all that can be said is that the are suppositions of which there are no hint in the Epistle. Connecting 1 Cor. 4:19; 2 Cor. 1:23, and 13:2, the apostle had not been back on account of the disorders in the church, whatever may be meant by "the third time" in 13:1. In 1:15,16 he is minded to come to them as a second benefit, and passing to Macedonia, to return to them, which would have been a 3rd time.

  5. Written from Macedonia not long after Paul's leaving Asia [1:8], it would not be many months after the dispatch of the Fist Epistle. This was probably 57 A.D. [winter] or spring of 58 A.D.




57/58 A.D.
2 Corinthians 1)

1 Paul (= small, little), an apostle (= one sent forth. 1st occ. of this form of address. Cp. Gal. 1:1. Eph. 1:1. Col. 1:1. 1 Tim. 1:1. 2 Tit. 1:1) of Jesus Christ (Gr. Iesous is the same as Heb. Yahshua, and means Salvation of Yahaveh, or Yahaveh the Savior. Christ is the Greek translation of Messiah. Christos has the same meaning, from chrio, to anoint) through the will of God (Gr. Theos corresponds generally to Elohim, the Creator, of the O.T.), and Timothy (= dear to God. Timothy is associated with Paul in the address of the epistles to Philippians, Colosians; and with Paul and Silas in the 2 epistles to the Thessalonians) the brother, to the church of God which is in Corinth, with all the saints (see Acts 9:13) which are in all Achaia:
2 Grace be to you and peace from God our Father (Gr. Pater. When used of God it implies "sons", not "offspring", and were existing as such, according to nature, on the ground of creation; not "sons" as being "begotten" into a new creation), and from the Lord (Gr. Kurios means owner used of each Person of the Trinity) Jesus Christ.

3 Blessed be the God, and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort; (Cp. Acts 4:36; 7:2.)
4 Who comforts us upon all our tribulation (see Acts 7:10), to our being able to comfort them which are in every trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted by God.
5 For as the sufferings (see Rom. 8:18) of the Christ abound towards us, so our comfort also abounds by Christ.
6 And if we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation, which works in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation and salvation.
7 And our hope on behalf of you is steadfast, knowing, that as you are partakers of the sufferings (see 1 Cor. 10:18), so shall you be of the consolation also.
8 For we do not wish you to be, brethren, have you ignorant concerning our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were weighed down out of measure (lit. according to excess), above power, so that we despaired even of life: (The reference may be to the riot at Ephesus [Acts 19:28-34], where his life would have been in danger, but for the counsel of his friends [v.31]; but the following verses rather indicate some dangerous sickness. Both may have been in the apostle's mind. Paul is tell the people not to expect "a bed of roses" when teaching the Gospel. There were times that Paul thought they were going to die.)
9 But we had the answer of death in ourselves (the only issue he could see from his troubles was "death"), in order that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raises the dead: (When you've done all you are able to do, turn it over to God. Put your trust in God, not yourself.)
10 Who delivered us out of so great a death, and will deliver: in Whom we hope that He will still also deliver us; (You have nothing to worry about, when you put your trust in God. He can handle that which we can't. If you are serving Father, He will never let you down.)
11 You also co-operating by prayer for us, that for the gift (Gr. charisma) bestowed upon us from many persons thanks may be given by many on account of us. (Have you ever felt the prayers of others on your behalf? Paul is thanking them for their prayers.)

12 For our boasting is this (see Rom. 3:27), the testimony of our conscience (see Acts 23:1), that in guilelessness and sincerity (see 1 Cor. 5:8) of God, not in fleshly wisdom (see Rom. 7:14 and 1 Pet. 2:11), but in the grace of God, we lived in the world, and more abundantly towards you. (Here, in the word "sincerity", we find a form of the Greek word which means "to open it up and let the sunshine judge it". Judge what is being said by the Word of God, not with fleshly wisdom. True wisdom comes from our Heavenly Father.)

13 For we write not other things to you, that what you read or acknowledge; and I trust you shall acknowledge even to the end; (What Paul has written to them was the Word of God. This is all they were going to receive from him. God's Word is all you need even up to the very end. Paul wanted them to judge his words by the sunlight.)
14 As you also acknowledged us in part (a part of you, the faithful ones), that we are your ground of boasting, even as you also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus. (See 1 Cor. 5:5. Not every one received the truth that Paul shared with them. Paul knew his responsibility was only to teach truth. What others did with it was their choice.)

15 And in this confidence I wished to come to you before (i.e. before visiting Masedonia), that you might have a second benefit;
16 And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again from Macedonia to you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judaea. (See Acts 15:5. This was the apostle's original intention, but was altered, because of his not finding Titus [2:12,13])

17 When I therefore was thus minded, did I use fickleness? (the question expects a negative answer) or the things that I plan, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be the yes yes, and the no no? (That is, one thing today and another tomorrow.)
18 But as God is faithful, our word (logos, cp. 1 Cor. 1:18) to you was not yes and no.
19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silas (cp. 1 Thess. 1:1. 2 Thess. 1:1. 1 Pet. 5:12. See Acts 18:5) and Timotheus, was not yes and no, but in Him was yes. (The preaching of Paul and those with him was divinely approved. The teaching was as Jesus Christ instructed, not as some man might say.)
20 For as many as the promises of God in Him they are are yes, Wherefore also through Him they are Amen (or truly. It is a title of the Lord. It means "truth", and He is the Truth [John 14:6]. Cp. Isa. 65:16, where "the God of truth" is "the God of Amen". The promises of God are all positive. Do you claim them? Those that don't know the promises and claim them won't receive them.), to the glory of God by us.
21 Now He which confirms (see Rom. 15:8) us with you in Christ, and anointed us (always used of the Lord, Luke 4:18. Acts 4:27; 10:38. Heb. 1:8), is God;
22 Who sealed us also (cp. John 3:33), and gave the earnest (a foretaste or pledge of some future benefit) of the Spirit in our hearts. (The operation of the Spirit is the pledge of the fullest of the promises. Paul is saying the price has already been paid for those that are sealed. The promises are guaranteed.)
23 Moreover I invoke God as a witness upon my soul, that to spare you (see Acts 20:29) I came not as yet to Corinth.
24 Not because we lord it over your faith, but are helpers (see 1 Cor. 8:9) of your joy: for by faith you stand. (No on has dominion over your faith. Your faith is yours and yours alone. Paul is telling the Corinthians that he doesn't want to have to come to Corinth, but you had better get your act together.)

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