13:1–15:35. Provocation of Saul.

P  F  13:1,2. The levies of Saul.
    G  13:3 – 14:46. Waar with Philistines.
   F  14:47-52. The levies of Saul.
    G  15:1-35. War with Amalek.

1000 to 998 B.C.

1 Samuel 13)

1: Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel, (something left out, should be 40 years)
2: Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan (= gift, or grace of God) in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.

13:3–14:46. War with Philistines.

G  H¹  13:3-22. First aggression of Jonathan.
   H²  13:23 – 14:46. Second aggression of Jonathan.

13:3-22. First Aggression of Jonathan.

H¹  J¹  g  3,4. Saul's assemblage of Israel.
         h  j  5-. The Philistines. Number.
             k  -5. Encampment at Michmash.
              i  6,7. Israel Distress.
               K  8. Delay of Samuel.
               K  9-15-. Sin of Saul.
    J²  g  -15,16-. Saul's assemblage of Israel.
         h   k  -16. Encampment at Michmash.
            j  17,18.The Philistines. Number.
              i  19-22. Israel. Disarmament.

998 to 974 B.C.

3: And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba (see note on 18:1), and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, “Let the Hebrews hear.”
4: And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines (the camp of Israel stunk in their eyes from the death of the Philistines). And the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal (in the plain of Jordan, east of Jericho, good for water, remote from the Philistines, and connected with sacred memories).

5: And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, Three thousand chariots (you always have more horses than chariots), and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude:

and they came up, and pitched in Michmash (= hidden), eastward from Beth-aven (house of nothingness).

6: When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, {for the People were pressed (i.e. into Saul's service),} then the People did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in pits. (Wimps run for the hills)
7: And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling. (Israel didn't have swords then)

8: And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the People were scattered from him.

9: And Saul said, “Bring to this place a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings.” And he offered up the burnt offering. (Saul just couldn't wait. The king playing a priest is a big NO-NO! [except for the King of kings an the Lord of lords, Yehoshua the Messiah])
10: And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him, that he might bless him.
11: And Samuel said, “What have you done?” And Saul said, “Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that you came not within the days appointed (Saul acted in haste. The day wasn't over yet), and that the Philistines gathered themselves together at Michmash;
12: Therefore said I, ‘The Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have not made supplication to the Lord:’ I forced myself therefore, and offered up the burnt offering.”
13: And Samuel said to Saul, “You have done foolishly: because you have not kept the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you: for now would the Lord have established your kingdom upon Israel for ever (this possible only with God as Sovereign).
14: But now your kingdom shall not continue: the Lord has sought Him a man after His own pleasure (quoted in Acts 13:22), and the Lord has commanded him to be leader over His People (He's talking about David), because you have not kept that which the Lord commanded you.”
15: And Samuel arose, and got him up from Gilgal and the rest of the People went up after Saul to meet the army when they arrived from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin.

And Saul numbered the people that were found with him, about six hundred men.
16: And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present with them, abode in Gibeah of Benjamin (probably the Giba of v.3):

but the Philistines encamped in Michmash.

17: And the spoilers (= raiding parties) came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies: one company turned to the way that leads to Ophrah, to the land of Shual:
18: And another company turned the way to Beth-horon: and another company turned to the way of the border that looks to the valley of Zeboim toward the wilderness.

19: Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel (this explains why Ehud had to make his own dagger [Judg. 3:16]; why Shamgar had only an ox-goad [Judg.3:31]; why Samson "had nothing in his hand" [Judg. 14:5,6]; and why "not a shield or spear among 40,000 in Israel [Judg.5:8]. In other days we read of how many "drew sword"): for the Philistines said, “Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears:”
20: But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every man his share, and his plough-share, and his axe, and his mattock (= a kind of pick-axe, with broad instead of pointed ends).
21: Yet they had a file (= a purse or money to pay Philistines to sharpen their tools) for the pick-axes, and for the plough-share, and for the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.
22: So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan (the Israelites had to depend on God): but with those who were with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found (a picked force).

13:23–14:46. Second Aggression of Jonathan.

H²  L  13:23–14:19. Jonathan's success.
     M  14:2-23. Saul's success.
    L  14:24-46. Jonathan's sin.

13:23–14:19. Jonathan's Success.

L  l  13:23. Garrison of Philistines. Place.
    m  14:1. Attack proposed.
     n  14:2,3. Army of Saul.
   l  14:4,5. Garrison of Philistines. Description.
    m  14:6-15. Attack carried out.
     n  14:16-19. Army of Saul.

998 - 974 B.C.

23: And the post (or permanent camp) of the Philistines went out to the pass of Michmash.

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