1 Kings 3)
1: And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt (= relationship by marriage), and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
T A 3:2-15. First appearance of Yahaveh to Solomon. B C 3:16-4:24. Wisdom and riches. Two women. D E 5:1-12. Contact with Hiram. F 5:13-18. Levy. G 6:1-8:66. Temple (part). A 9:1-9. Second appearance of Yahaveh to Solomon. B D E 9:10-14. Contract with Hiram. F 9:15-24. Levy. C 9:36-10:29. Riches and wisdom. One woman (Queen of Sheba).
A v 2-4. Solomon's worship at Gibeon. w 5-. Dream. x y -5. Yahaveh. Offer. z 6-9. Solomon. Choice. x y 10. Yahaveh. Approbation. z 11-14. Solomon. Gifts. w 15-. Dream. v -15. Solomon's worship at Jerusalem.
2: Only (may imply regret rather than censure. Cp. 15:14, &c.) the people sacrificed in high places (Deut. 12:11,14,26,27, not obeyed since the Lord had forsaken Shiloh. Cp. Ps. 78:60,67-69. Jer. 7:12-14), because there was no house built to the name of the Lord, until those days.
3: And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father (contrast "the statutes of Omri" [Mic. 6:16], and "statutes of the heathen" [2 Kings 17:8]): only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places (not necessarily idolatrous [see v.2. and cp. 1 Chron. 16:39; 21:29. 2 Chron. 1:3,13], though perhaps copied from Canaanites. Practice too deeply rooted for even Asa and Hezekiah to remove. Josiah it was who finally desecrated them. Anglo-Saxon = Hoes).
4: And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there (= a high place, where the Tabernacle was. Cp. Josh. 9:3. 2 Sam. 2:12,13); for that was the great high place: a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer up upon that altar.
5: In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night (1 of the 20 in Scripture. See Gen. 20:3):
and God (Elohim) said, “Ask what I shall give you.”
6: And Solomon said (i.e. in his sleep. Cp. v.15. See Ps. 127:2), “You have showed to Your servant David my father great grace (or loving-kindness), according as he walked before You in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with You; and You have kept for him this great kindness, that You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day.
7: And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father: and I am but a little child (in his father's eyes a "wise man" [2:6,9]): I shall not know how to go out or come in (Fig., put for whole manner of life).
8: And Your servant is in the midst of Your People which You have chosen, a great People, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.
9: Give therefore Your servant (cp. 2 Chron. 1:10) an understanding mind (= hearing. Solomon began by asking wisdom from God. Rehoboam [his son] began by asking counsel from man [12:6,8]) to judge Your People, that I may discern between good and bad: for who is able to judge this thy so great a people?”
10: And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.
11: And God (Elohim) said to him, “Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have asked riches for yourself, nor have asked the soul of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment;
12: Behold, I have done according to your words: lo, I have given you a wise and an understanding mind; so that there was none like you among the kings before you (see v.13 and 10:23), neither after you shall any arise like unto you.
13: And I have also given you that which you have not asked, both riches, and honor: so that there shall not be a man among the kings like unto you all your days.
14: And if thou will walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David did walk, then I will lengthen your days.”
15: And Solomon awoke; and, behold, it was a dream.
And he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the Ark of the covenant of the Lord, and offered up burnt offerings, and prepared peace offerings (showing that the Ceremonial Law was in writing before the days of Solomon, and not a later production, as asserted and assumed by some), and made a feast to all his servants.
C H 3:16-28. Wisdom. J 4:1-28. Dominion and riches. H 4:29-34. Wisdom.
H a 16-22. Case propounded. b 23-25. Sentence propounded. a 26. Case withdrawn. b 27,28. Judgment executed.
16: Then came there two women, that were harlots, to the king, and stood before him.
17: And the one woman said, “O my lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house.
18: And it came to pass the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also: and we were together; and there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two in the house.
19: And this woman's son died in the night; because she overlaid it (1 of the 10 deaths occasioned by women. See Judg. 4:21).
20: And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while your handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead son in my bosom.
21: And when I rose in the morning to give my child suck, behold, it was dead: but when I had considered it in the morning, behold, it was not my son, which I did bear.”
22: And the other woman said, “No; but the living is my son, and the dead is your son.” And this said, “No; but the dead is your son, and the living is my son.” Thus they talked very much before the king.
23: Then said the king, “The one says, ‘This is my son that lives, and your son is the dead:’ and the other says, ‘No; but your son is the dead, and my son is the living.’ ”
24: And the king said, “Bring me a sword.” And they brought a sword before the king.
25: And the king said, “Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.”
26: Then spoke the woman whose the living child was to the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said, “O my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it.” But the other kept on saying, “Let it be neither mine nor yours, but divide it.”
27: Then the king answered and said, “Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it: she is the mother thereof.”
28: And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared (or revered) the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God (= Divine wisdom. See v.9) was in him, to do judgment.