A¹ 1 Kings 1:1 – 12:15. The Kingdom. United.
A² 1 Kings 12:16 – 2 Kings 25:30. The Kingdom. Divided.
A¹ B¹ 1 Kings 1:1-2:11. David.
B² 1 Kings 2:12-11:43. Solomon.
B³ 1 Kings 12:1-15. Rehoboam.
A² C¹ 1 Kings 12:16-19. The division of the Kingdom.
D¹ E¹ 1 Kings 12:2-14:20. ISRAEL (Jereoboam I).
F¹ 1 Kings 14:21-15:24. JUDAH (Rehoboam,
14:21-31; Abijam,15:1-8; Asa,15:9-24).
E² 1 Kings 15:25-22:40. ISRAEL (Nadab,15:25-
31; Baasha,15:32-16:7; Elah,16:8-14;
F² 1 Kings 22:41-50. JUDAH (Jehoshaphat).
E³ 1 Kings 22:51 – 2 Kings 8:15. ISRAEL
(Ahaziah,1 Kings 22:51 – 2 Kings 1:18;
[Elijah's translation,2 Kings 2:1-25];
Joram,2 Kings 3:1-8:15).
F³ 2 Kings 8:16-9:29. JUDAH (Jehoram,8:16-
E4 2 Kings 9:30-10:36. ISRAEL (Jehu)**.
F4 2 Kings 11:1-12:21. JUDAH (Athaliah,
D² E5 2 Kings 13:1-25. ISRAEL (Jehoahaz,13:1-9;
F5 2 Kings 14:1-22. JUDAH (Amaziah,14:1-20;
E6 2 Kings 14:23-29. ISRAEL (Jeroboam II).
F6 2 Kings 15:1-7. JUDAH (Uzziah).
E7 2 Kings 15:8-31. ISRAEL (Zacharah,15:32-38;
F7 2 Kings 15:32-16:20. JUDAH (Jotham,15:32-
E8 2 Kings 17:1-41. ISRAEL (Hoshea)**.
F8 2 Kings 18:1-24:20. JUDAH (Hezekiah,
18:1-20:21; Manasseh,21:1-18; Amon,
21:19-26; Josiah,22:1-23:30; Jehoahaz,
*For the cause of the division of the Book of Kings into 2 Books, and for their relation to the 2 Books of Samuel, see intro to Samuel.
**Note the division of the 8 pairs into 2 groups, by the events which characterize the last pair of each group.
**Note the division of the 8 pairs into 2 groups, by the events which characterize the last pair of each group.
TITLE. The wrong division into 2 Books cuts up the histories of Ahaziah and Elijah. See link * above.
KINGS. As compared with Chronicles, Kings and Samuel give the history from the human point of view, while Chronicles gives the same history from the Divine standpoint. The former, as man ruled the history; the later, as God overruled it. Cp. Saul's death, 1 Sam.31:6, with 1 Chron. 10:13,14; and in Kings, 3 verses given to Hezekiah's reformation, and in Chronicles, 3 Chapters. For parallel passages in the Book of Chronicles, see link * above. For the order of the Book in the Hebrew cannon, see introduction to Bible study
Originally only one Book in the Hebrew Cannon, form in the LXX. and the Vulgate the third and fourth Books of Kings (the Books of Samuel being the first and second). It must be remembered that the division between the Books of Kings and Samuel is equally artificial, and that in point of fact the historical Books commencing with with Judges and ending with 2 Kings present the appearance of one work, giving a continuous history of Israel from the time of Joshua to the death of Jehoiachin. The Books of Kings contains the history from David's death to Solomon's accession to the destruction of Jerusalem, with a supplemental notice of an event that occurred after an interval of 26 years - namely, the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon - and a still further extension to Jehoiachin's death, the time of which is not known, but which was probably not long after his liberation. The history therefore comprehends the whole time of the Israelitish monarchy, exclusive of the reigns of Saul and David. As regards the affairs of foreign nations and the relation of Israel to them, the historical notices in these Books, though in the earlier times scantly, are most valuable, and in striking accord with the latest additions to or knowledge of contemporary profane history. A most important aid to a right understanding of the history in these Books, and to the flling up of its outline, is to be found in he prophets, and especially in Isaiah and Jeremiah.
TIME WHEN WRITTEN. They were undoubtedly written during the period of the captivity, probably after the 26th year.
AUTHORSHIP. as regards the authorship of the Books, but little difficulty presents itself. The Jewish tradition which ascribes them to Jeremiah is borne out by the strongest internal evidence.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION. There was a regular series of state annals for both the kingdom of Judah and that of Israel, which embraced the whole time comprehended in the Books of Kings, or at least at the end of the reign of Jehoiachin. 2 Kings 24:5. These annals are constantly cited by name as "the book of the acts of Solomon", 1 Kings 11:41; and after Solomon "the book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah" or "Israel", e.g. 1 Kings 14:29; 15:7; 16:5,14,20; 2 Kings 10:34; 24:5, ect.; and it is manifest that the author of Kings had them both before him while he drew up his history, in which the reigns of the 2 kingdoms are harmonized and these annals constantly appealed to. But in addition to these national annals, there were also extant, at the time that the Books of Kings were compiled, separate works of the several prophets who had lived in Judah and Israel.
AUTHORITY. Their canonical authority having never been disputed, it is needless to bring forward the testimonies of their authenticity which may be found in Josephus, Eusebius, Jerome, Augustine, ect. They are reckoned among the prophets, in the threefold division of the Holy Scriptures; a position in accordance with the supposition that they may be compiled by Jeremiah, and contain the narratives of the different prophets in succession. They are frequently cited by our LORD and by the apostles.
x 2 Sam.2:1-4:12. The Divided kingdom. y 2 Sam.5:1-24:26. The United kingdom. y 1 Kings 1:1-12:15. The United Kingdom. x 1 Kings 12:16 – 2 Kings 25:30. The Divided kingdom.
B¹ G¹ J 1:1. David. Length of years. K 1:2-4. Advice of servants to David. H L 1:5-10. Solomon. Wrongful succession. M N 1:11-14. Nathan. Counter-action. O 1:15-. Bath-sheba. " G² 1:-15. David. Very old. H M O 1:16-21. Bath-sheba. Counter-action. N 1:22-27. Nathan. " L 1:28-53. Solomon. Rightful succession. G³ K 2:1-9. Advice of David to Solomon. J 2:10,11. David. Length of reign.
1 Kings 1)
1: Now king David (occurs in 2 Sam. 6:12,16; 7:18; 8:9,11; 9:5; 13:21,39; 16:5,6; 17:17,21; 19:11,16. Book begins with king David and ends with king of Babylon. Opens with Temple built, and closes with Temple burnt. Begins with David's first successor on the throne of his kingdom, and ends with David last successor released from the house of captivity. Characters of all are tested by the standard of David) was old (about 70 years old. Cp. 2 Sam. 5:4,5) and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he got no heat (cp. Ps. 32:3,4).
2: Wherefore his servants (i.e. his advisers, probably medical) said to him, “Let there be sought for my lord the king a young damsel: and let her stand before the king, and let her cherish him, and let her lie in your bosom, that my lord the king may get heat.”
3: So they sought for a fair damsel throughout all the borders of Israel, and found Abishag (= father of error [i.e. blundering) a Shunammite, and brought her to the king.
4: And the damsel was very fair, and cherished the king, and ministered to him: but the king knew her not.
5: Then Adonijah (= my lord is Yahaveh. 4th son of David [2 Sam. 3:4]. Amno dead [2 Sam. 13:29. Absalom dead [2 Sam.18:14], and probably Chileab [2 Sam.3:3]) the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, “I will be king:” and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
6: And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, “Why have you done so?” and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother (i.e. "Haggith", v.5) bare him after Absalom.
7: And he conferred with Joab the son of Zeruiah (this is why his name is not in 2 Sam.23. See 2 Sam. 23:24), and with Abiathar the priest: and they following Adonijah helped him.
8: But Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, and Shimei, and Rei, and the mighty men which belonged to David (see 2 Sam. 23:8,9,16,22), were not with Adonijah.
9: And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth, which is by En-rogel (= well or spring of the fuller. South side of Jerusalem, in the Kidron valley), and called all his brethren and the king's sons, and all the men of Judah the king's servants:
10: But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not.
N c 11. Bath-sheba. Danger. d 12. Advice for David. d 13. Advice for Bath-sheba. c 14. Bath-sheba. Support.
11: Wherefore Nathan spoke to Bath-sheba the mother of Solomon, saying, “Have you not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith does reign, and David our lord knows it not?
12: Now therefore come, let me, I pray you, give you counsel, that you may save your own soul, and the life of your son Solomon.
13: Go and get you in to king David, and say to him, “Did not you, my lord, O king, swear to your handmaid, saying, ‘Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne?’ why then does Adonijah reign?
14: And behold, while you yet talk there with the king, I also will come in after you, and confirm your words.”
15: And Bath-sheba went in to the king into the chamber:
and the king was very old; and Abishag the Shunammite ministered to the king.
M O e 16. Obeisance of Bath-sheba. Nathan's advice f 17. Rightful successor? Followed. g 18. Adonijah. " h 19. Feast. " i 20,21. Expectation. " N e 22,23. Obeisance of Nathan. Nathan's promise f 24. Wrongful successor. Fulfilled. g 25-. Adonijah. " h -25,26. Feast. " i 27. Inquiry. "
16: And Bath-sheba bowed, and did obeisance to the king. And the king said to her, “What do you want?”
17: And she said to him, “My lord o king, you swore by the Lord your to your handmaid, saying, ‘Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne.’
18: And now, behold, Adonijah reigns; and now, my lord the king, you know it not:”
19: And he has slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and has called all the sons of the king, and Abiathar the priest, and Joab the captain of the host: but Solomon your servant has he not called.
20: And now, my lord, O king, the eyes of all Israel are upon you, that you should tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him.
21: Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king shall sleep with his fathers (see Deut. 31:16), that I and my son Solomon shall be counted offenders” (Heb. chãt’ã. See Lev.4:2).
22: And, lo, while she yet talked with the king, Nathan the prophet also came in.
23: And they told the king, saying, “Behold Nathan the prophet.” And when he was come in before the king, he bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground.
24: And Nathan said, “My lord, O king, have you said, Adonijah shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne?
25: For he is gone down this day, and has slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and has called all the king's sons, and the captains of the host, and Abiathar the priest;
and, behold, they eat and drink before him, and say, God (Elohim) save king Adonijah.
26: But me, even me your servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and your servant Solomon, has he not called.
27: Is this thing done by my lord the king, and you have not showed it to your servant, who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?”
L P¹ 28-40. Proclamation and anointing. P² 41-53. Adonijah. Rebellion quelled.
P¹ Q¹ j¹ 28. Call for Bath-sheba (David). k¹ 29,30. Command. Given. l¹ 31. Acquiescence. Reverence. Q² j² 32. Call for Zadok (David). k² 33-35. Command. Given. l³ 36,37. Acquiescence. Benedicton. Q³ j³ 38. Call for Solomon (Zadok). k³ 39. Command. Obeyed. l³ 40. Acquiescence. Rejoicing.
28: Then king David answered and said, “Call me Bath-sheba.” And she came into the king's presence, and stood before the king.
29: And the king swore, and said, “As the Lord lives, that has redeemed my soul out of all distress,
30: Even according as I swore to you by the Lord God (Yahaveh Elohim) of Israel, saying, ‘Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne in my stead;’ even so will I certainly do this day.”
31: Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face to the earth, and did reverence to the king, and said, “Let my lord king David live for ever.”
32: And king David said, “Call me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada.” And they came before the king.
33: The king also said to them, “Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon my own mule (David had not disobeyed Deut. 17:16, as Absalom had done [2 Sam.15:1] and Adonijah [1 Kings 1:5]), and bring him down to Gihon:
34: And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel: and blow you all with the trumpet, and say, ‘God save king Solomon.’
35: Then you all shall come up after him, that he may come and sit upon my throne (as associate king, Solomon being 19 years of age); for he shall be king in my stead: and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah.”
36: And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said, “Amen: The Lord God of my lord the king say so too.
37: As the Lord has been with my lord the king, even so be he with Solomon, and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord king David.”
38: So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon.
39: And Zadok the priest took an horn of oil out of the tent (Heb. ‘ohel. Not the Tabernacle at Gibeon, but David's tabernacle [2 Sam.6:17]), and anointed Solomon. And they blew the trumpet; and all the People said, “God save king Solomon.”
40: And all the People came up after him, and the People played loudly on pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth tore (Fig. Hyperbole) with the sound of them.
P² m 41. Alarm. n 42-48. Tidings brought to Adonijah. m 49,50. Fear and flight. n 51-53. Tidings brought to Solomon.
41: And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it as they had made an end of eating. And when Joab heard the sound of the trumpet, he said, “Why is this noise of the city being in an uproar?”
42: And while he yet spoke, behold, Jonathan the son of Abiathar the priest came: and Adonijah said to him, “Come in; for you are a valiant man, and bring good tidings.”
43: But Jonathan (David's faithful messenger of 2 Sam. 15:36 and 17:17) answered and said to Adonijah, “Of a truth (or, truth to tell) our lord king David has made Solomon king.
44: And the king has sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites (a bodyguard [1 Sam. 30:14]), and they have caused him to ride upon the king's mule:
45: And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon: and they are come up from that place rejoicing, so that the city rang again. This is the noise that you all have heard.
46: And also Solomon has taken his seat on the throne of the kingdom.
47: And moreover the king's servants came to bless our lord king David, saying, ‘God make the name of Solomon better than your name, and make his throne greater than your throne.’ And the king worshiped himself upon the bed (cp. Gen. 47:31).
48: And also thus said the king, ‘Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, Which has given one to sit on my throne this day, my eyes even seeing it.’ ”
49: And all the guests that were with Adonijah were afraid, and rose up, and went every man his way.
50: And Adonijah feared because of Solomon, and arose, and went, and caught hold on the horns of the altar.
51: And it was told Solomon, saying, “Behold, Adonijah fears king Solomon: for, lo, he has caught hold on the horns of the altar, saying, ‘Let king Solomon swear to me today that he will not slay his servant with the sword.’ ”
52: And Solomon said, “If he will shew himself toward me a son of valor, there shall not an hair of him fall to the earth: but if wickedness shall be found in him, he shall die.”
53: So king Solomon sent, and they brought him down from the altar. And he came and bowed himself to king Solomon: and Solomon said to him, “Go to your house.