L³ A¹ c¹ 20:1-. To Desert of Zin. d¹ -1-13. Events - Death of Miriam, and murmurings. e¹ 14:21. Opposition of Edom (Edomites). A² c² 22. To Mount Hor. d² 23-29. Event - Death of Aaron. e² 21:1-3. Opposition of Arad (Canaanites). A³ c³ 4-. To compass lan of Edom. d³ -4,5. Event - Murmuring. e³ 6-9. Oppsition of God. Fiery serpents. A4 c4 10-16-. To Oboth and Arnon. d4 -16-20. Event - Giving of water. e4 21-31. Opposition of Sihon (Amorites). A5 c5 32-. To Jaezer. d5 -32. Event - Taking of villages, &c. e5 33-35. Opposition of Og (Bashan). A6 c6 22:1. To Plains of Moab. d6 2-4. Event - Fear of Moab. e6 22:5-25:18. Opposition of Balak (Moabites).
March 20-21st, 1452 B.C.
1: Then came the sons of Israel (this was the 1st month of the 40th year after Exodus. Cp. 20:28 with 33:38 and Deut.2:1-7. A gap of 37½ years between the spies [Chapters 13,14] and this Chapter. This blank should be carefully noted. See 14:34), even the whole congregation, into the desert of Zin (Heb.= flat) in the first month:
d¹ f h 2-5. Contention of People. Chiding with Moses. i 6. Action of Moses and Aaron. g 7,8. Command of Yehovah. f i 9-11. Action of Moses and Aaron. h 12,13. Contention of People. Sentence on Moses and Aaron.
and (notice the Fig. Polysydenton throughout this chapter. The old nation dead. History of the new nation begins here, and each event singled out and emphasized) the people abode in Kadesh (the second time in eventful Kadesh. No history since the first time - all a blank, except a list of sojournings in Chapter 35); and Miriam died there (died early in the 40th year; Aaron in the 5th month. Cp. vv.23-29 with vv.33,38), and was buried there.
2: And there was no water for the congregation: and they gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron.
3: And the people chided with Moses, and spake, saying, "Would God (no Heb. for "God" here) that we had died when our brethren died before the Lord! (cp. 11:33. This whole sentence is a Fig. meaning wishing for something.)
4: And why (Fig., not asking for information) have you all brought up the congregation of the Lord into this wilderness, that we and our cattle should die there?
5: And why have you all made us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us in to this wicked place? it is no place of seed, or of (to emphasize the 3 items) figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates (see 13:23); neither is there any water to drink."
6: And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly to the entrance of the tent of the congregation, and they fell upon their faces: and the glory of the Lord appeared to them.
7: And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
8: “Take the rod, and gather you the assembly together, you, and Aaron your brother, and you speak to the rock before their eyes (not "smite" as in v.11. The rock = Jacob's pillar [stone of Scone, or stone of destiny]. They had it with them. See Deut. 8:15. It is the type and foreshadow of Christ); and it shall give forth his water, and you shall bring forth to them water out of the rock: so you shall give the congregation and their beasts drink.”
9: And Moses took the rod from before the Lord, as He commanded him.
10: And Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before the rock, and he said to them (he spoke to the People instead of the rock), “Hear now, all you rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock?”
11: And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod (i.e. his tribal rod, cp. v.8) he smote (instead of speaking) the rock twice (showing the heat of his feelings): and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank (cp. 1 Cor. 10:4), and their beasts also.
12: And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, “Because you believed me not (so Moses entered not in, because of unbelief), to sanctify Me in the eyes of the sons of Israel (hence called "rebellion in v.24 and 27:14. Cp. Deut. 32:51. Cp. "we" in v.10. His complaint in 11:21-23 was not public), therefore you shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them.”
13: This is the water of Meribah (= contention); because the sons of Israel strove with the Lord, and He hallowed Himself in them (cp. Ezek38:23).
e¹ j 14-17. Request. k 18. Refusal. j 19. Request. k 20,21. Refusal.
14: And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh (= holy, sanctuary) to the king of Edom (= red), “Thus says your brother Israel, ‘You know all the travail that has found us:
15: How our fathers went down into Egypt, and we have dwelt in Egypt a long time; and the Egyptians vexed us, and our fathers:
16: And when we cried to the Lord, He heard our voice, and sent an Angel, and has brought us forth out of Egypt: and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city in the uttermost of your border:
17: Let us pass, I pray you, through your country: we will not pass through the fields, or through the vineyards, neither will we drink of the water of the dug wells: we will go by the king's highway, we will not turn to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed your borders.’ ”
18: And Edom said to him, “You shall not pass through me (Fig., put for "my country"), lest I come out against you with the sword.”
19: And the sons of Israel said to him, “We will go by the high way: and if I and my cattle drink of your water, then I will pay for it: I will only, without saying a word, go through on my feet.”
20: And he said, “You shall not go through.” And Edom came out against him with many people, and with a strong hand.
21: Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage through his border: wherefore Israel turned away from him (cp. Judg. 11:18. Deut. 2:4,5).
22: And the sons of Israel, even the whole congregation, journeyed from Kadesh (cp. v.1 and 33:37), and came to mount Hor (= mountain, cp. 33:37).
d² l 23-26. Moses. m 27,28. His obedience. l 29-. The congregation. m -29. Their mourning
23: And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in mount Hor, by the coast of the land of Edom, saying,
24: “Aaron shall be gathered to his people (euphemism for dying = die, and be buried as all his fathers were, Sheôl being the grave. Cp. Gen. 25:8. Ps. 26:9. Acts 13:36): for he shall not enter into the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because you rebelled against My word at the water of Meribah (Heb. "mouth", Fig., put for what was spoken by it. Cp. v.12).
25: Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring them up to mount Hor:
26: And strip Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son: and Aaron shall be gathered to his people, and shall die there.”
27: And Moses did as the Lord commanded: and they went up into mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation.
28: And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar (= God is helper) his son; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount (cp. Gen. 8:4; 22:2. Ex. 19. Matt. 5:1. Ezek. 40:2. Rev. 21:10. Deut. 34:1-5. Matt. 17:1-3): and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mount.
29: And when all the congregation perceived (understood, cp. Gen.16:13; 42:1. Ex.20:18) that Aaron was dead (Aaron's death coincides with the end of the wanderings), they mourned for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel. (See Ex.16:31; one of the 13 occ. of the expression before the division of the 2 kingdoms; and cp. 1 Kings 12:17).