H2 P 3:1-22. Commencement of work. Q 4:1-6:14. Opposition. Wrath. Mockery. P 6.15. Completion of work. Q 6:16-19. Opposition. Wrath. Hostility
P R 1,2. From the sheep gate. r1 3-5. The fish gate. r2 6-12. The old gate. r3 13. The valley gate. r4 14. The dung gate. r5 15-24. The fountain gate. r6 25. The prison gate. r7 26,27. The water gate. r8 28,29-. The horse gate. r9 -29,30. The east gate. r10 21. The Miphkad gate. R 22. The sheep gate.
In Neh. 3. the first sixteen verses refer to Jerusalem, and the latter sixteen verses to Zion (or the city of David), south of Moriah. A study of these, and a comparison with ch. 12, will explain most of the difficulties connected with the topography of the city.
1. The Valley Gate (2:13; 3:13). Cp. 2 Chron. 26:9.
2. The Gate of the Fountain (2:14; 3:15; 12:37), on Ophel at the Gihon spring (that mentioned in 2Kings 25:4. Jer. 39:4).
3. The Sheep Gate (3:1; 12:39). North of the Temple.
4. The Fish Gate (3:3; 12:39). Cp. 2Chron. 33:14. Zeph. 1:10.
5. The Old Gate (3:6; 12:39). Cp. 2Chron. 33:14, and 2 Kings 22:14, "college". Called also the "First Gate" (Zech. 14:10).
6. The Dung Gate (2:14; 3:14; 12:31). Probably same as Harsith Gate (Jer. 19:2); sometimes rendered the Gate of Potsherds, from heres, a potter's vessel. Leading to Hinnom. N.B. Better = Pottery Gate.
7. The Water Gate (3:25, 26).
8. The Horse Gate (3:28). Cp. 2 Kings 11:16. 2 Chron. 23:15. Jer. 31:40. South-east of the Temple, and close to the city and house of David.
9. The East Gate (3:29). East of the Temple, and connected with it.
10. The Gate of Miphkad (3:31). Probably north-east of Temple. ( = The Registry Gate.)
11. The Gate of Ephraim (8:16; 12:39). Cp. 2 Chron. 25:23.
12. The Prison Gate (12:39), or Gate of the Guard (2Kings 11:6, 19).
1. The Valley Gate (2:13; 3:13). Cp. 2 Chron. 26:9.
1 Then Eliashib (= God restores. The son of Joiakim, the son of Jeshua [cp. 12:10]. He was earnest in material work, but negligent of what was spiritual [see 13:4,7]) the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they built the sheep gate (near the present St. Stephens gate, at the south-esat corner of the Temple area. So called because the sheep for sacrifice were brought in there. Cp. John 5:2. This was the point of beginning and ending); they sanctified it, and set up the doors (or gate hanging on hinges) of it; even to the tower of Meah (= a hundred) they sanctified it, to the tower of Hananeel. (= God has favored. Cp. 12:39. The partial fulfillment of Jer. 31:38, which stretches on to what is still future. Cp. Zech. 14:10. The 2 towers were on either side of the sheep gate)
2 And at his hand built the men of Jericho (cp. Ezra 2:34. The gate opposite to their city). And next to them built Zaccur the son of Imri.
3 But the fish gate (see 2:13) did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
4 And next to them repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah, the son of Koz. And next to them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabeel. And next to them repaired Zadok the son of Baana.
5 And next to them the Tekoites repaired; but their nobles put not their necks to the work of their LORD. (Adonim, as in Ps. 8:1,9)
6 Moreover the old gate (see 2:13) repaired Jehoiada the son of Paseah, and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
7 And next to them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah (about 4 and 5 1/2 miles north-north-west of Jerusalem respectively), to the throne of the governor (the Persian governor) on this side the river. (The Euphrates)
8 And at his hand repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, of the refiners. Next to him also repaired Hananiah the son of one of the perfumers, and they fortified (see Ex. 23:3) Jerusalem to the broad wall.
9 And next to them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the prince of the half circuit of Jerusalem.
10 And next to them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house (so v.23. A true principle in all reformation work. House = temporary erection, dwelling home; not having a door with hinges, but only an entrance). And next to him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabniah.
11 Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hashub the son of Pahathmoab, repaired the second piece, and the tower of the furnaces. (At the north-west corner of the city. Cp. 12:38)
12 And next to him repaired Shallum the son of Halohesh, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters. (Showing how women may contribute to the work of reformation)
13 The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah (now Zanu'a about 2 1/2 miles south of Beth-Shemesh); they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits on the wall to the dung gate.
14 But the dung gate repaired Malchiah the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Beth-haccerem (= house of the vineyards [Jer. 6:1]); he built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
15 But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah (= sent. See John 5:1,2. Cp. John 9:7. At south-west corner of Ophel) by the king's garden (see 2 Kings 25:4), and to the stairs that go down from the city of David. (On the east side of the city. This fixes the site of Zion. See 2 Sam. 5:7. Cp. 12:37.)
16 After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of the half part of Bethzur (about 4 miles north of Hebron), unto the place over against the sepulchers of David (this was therefore in Zion, and include those of his descendants), and to the pool (see 2 Kings 20:20) that was made, and to the house of the mighty men.
17 After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next to him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of the half part of Keilah (about 15 miles south-east of Jerusalem, in the Hebron mountains. See 1 Sam. 23:1-13), in his part.
18 After him repaired their brethren, Bavai the son of Henadad, the ruler of the half part of Keilah.
19 And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning of the wall.
20 After him Baruch the son of Zabbai zealously repaired the other piece (this is said, to the everlasting memory, of Beruch. Prov. 10:7), from the turning of the wall to the entrance of the house of Eliashib the high priest.
21 After him repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah the son of Koz another piece, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.
22 And after him repaired the priests, the men of the plain.
23 After him repaired Benjamin and Hashub over against their house. After him repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah by his house.
24 After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another piece, from the house (see 7:4) of Azariah to the turning of the wall, even unto the corner.
25 Palal the son of Uzai, over against the turning of the wall, and the tower which lies out from the king's high house (or upper, i.e. the site or ruin of it. Not yet rebuilt. Cp. 7:4), that was by the court of the prison (were Jeremiah had been imprisoned more than once [Jer. 32:2; 33:1; 38:7,13]). After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh.
26 Moreover the Nethinims (there work was to carry wood and water for the Temple. Hence their dwelling. See Ezra 2:43) dwelt in Ophel (= the Phel: the hill south of Moriah. Formerly Jebus, afterward Zion), unto the place over against the water gate (by Gihon. Now 'Ain Umm ed Dēraj, "the Virgins Fount". On east side of Ophel, in Kedron valley) toward the east, and the tower that lies out. (Probably the "tower of Siloam", Luke 13:4)
27 After them the Tekoites repaired another piece, over against the great tower that lies out (see above), even to the wall of Ophel.
28 From above the horse gate repaired the priests, every man over against his house.
29 After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his house.
After him repaired also Shemaiah the son of Shechaniah, the keeper of the east gate.
30 After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another piece. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber.
31 After him repaired Malchiah the goldsmith's son (or, the son of Zorphi) to the place of the Nethinims, and of the merchants, over against the gate Miphkad (or, gate of review or registry. Probably north-east of Temple), and to the going up of the corner.
(This verse is reckoned in the Massorah as the middle verse of the 685 verses of the whole book "Ezra-Nehemiah", showing that the 2 books are one)
32 And between the going up of the corner to the sheep gate (the work thus ended where it had begun) repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants.