W D 1-. The Lord. Teaching. E -1. Vineyard. Hired to husbandman. F 2-8. Conduct of husbandmen. E 9. Vineyard. Given to others. D 10,11. The Lord. Application.
1 And He began to speak to them in parables.
"A certain man planted a vineyard, and placed a fence about it, and dug a place for the wine-vat, and built a watch-house (see Matt. 21:33), and let it out to vine-dresser, and went abroad.
F p1 2. A servant sent. q1 3. His treatment. p2 4-. Another servant sent. q2 -4. His treatment. p3 5-. Another servant sent. q3 -5-. His treatment. p4 -5-. "Many others sent". q4 -5. Their treatment. p5 6. The only Son sent. q5 7,8. His treatment.
2 And at the season (the 4th year after planting it; no profit till then. See Luke 19:23,24) he sent to the husbandmen a bond-servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen from the fruit of the vineyard. (This shows that part, or the whole rent was to be paid in kind. See "let it out", Matt. 21:33)
3 And they took him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
4 And again he sent to them another servant;
and him they stoned, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away insulted.
5 And again he sent another;
and him they killed,
and many others [He sent, whom they used shamefully] (all these were "His servants the prophets" up to John the Baptist.); scourging some, and killing some.
6 Having yet therefore one son, his own beloved, he sent him also last to them (a Divine supplement, here), saying, 'They will have respect to my son.'
7 But those husbandmen said to themselves that, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.'
8 And they took him, and killed him (as the Lord had already revealed to the disciples [10:32-34]), and cast him outside of the vineyard.
9 What will therefore the lord (implying and leading up to the interpretation) of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard to others. (The new Israel, as foretold in Isa. 66:7-14)
10 And have you not even read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected this is become the head of the corner:
11 This was from Yehovah's (the Lord's) doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes?' " (Quoted from Ps. 118:22. Cp. Acts 4:10-12)
12 And they sought to lay hold on Him, but feared the people: because they perceived that He had spoken the parable against them: and they left Him, and went their way.
Y1 r 13. Their design planned. s 14,15-. Question re Tribute. t -15. Request of the Lord. t 16-. Request complied with. s -16. Question and answer re Tribute. r 17. Their design defeated.
13 And they send to Him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, that they might catch Him in His discourse. (Gr. agreuō = to take in hunting; hence, to ensnare. In Matt. 22:15, to "entangle". Both are a Divine supplementary renderings of the same Aramaic word: Matt. giving the result of the hunting. None of the two words occ. elsewhere)
14 And when they were come, they say to Him, "Teacher, we know that you are true, and care about no one: because You look not on the person of men, but teach the way of God (Gr. Theos corresponds generally to Elohim, the Creator, of the O.T.) with truth: Is it lawful to give tribute (occ. only here and in Matt. 17:25; 22:17,19) to Caesar, or not?
15 Shall we give, or shall we not give?" (A Divine supplement, here)
But He, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you tempt me? bring Me a penny (Gr. denarion = 16 cents U.S), that I may see it."
16 And they brought it.
And He said to them, "Whose is this image and superscription?" (see Matt. Matt. 22:20) And they said to Him, "Caesar's."
17 And Jesus (Gr. Iesous is the same as Heb. Yehoshua, or the abbreviated form Yeshua, and means Salvation of Yehovah, or Yehovah the Savior) answering said to them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." And they were wondering at Him.
Y2 G 18. Their error. Denial of Resurrection. H 19-23. The Doctrine questioned. G 24. Their error. Ignorance of Scripture. H 25-27. The Doctrine Proved.
18 Then come to him the Sadducees (see Matt. 9:11), they who say there is no resurrection; and they questioned Him, saying,
19 "Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed to his brother.' (Quoted from Deut. 5,6. Assuming a simple hypothesis.)
20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
22 And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman also died.
23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven got her to wife."
24 And Jesus answering said to them, "Do you not on account of this err (referring to the reasons about to be stated in the next 2 clauses), because you know not the scriptures, neither the [inherent] power of God? (Gr. dunamis, miraculous power. Where our word dynamite comes from)
25 For when they shall rise from among the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven. (Because you are in spiritual bodies)
26 But concerning the dead bodies, that they rise: have you not read in the book of Moses, how at the place concerning the bush (i.e. the passage about it in Ex. 8:6. Cp. Rom. 11:2 "in Elijah") God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' (Quoted from Ex. 3:2-6. They are still alive in spirit bodies)
27 He is not the God of the dead people, but the God of the living (i.e. those who live again in resurrection. See Matt. 9:18. Therefore they must rise. This is the only logical conclusion of the Lord's argument. The whole subject is resurrection.): you therefore do greatly err. (Note the emphasis on this pronoun. This clause is a Divine supplement, here)
Y3 u 28-. Perception of the Lord by the Scribe. v -28. Scribe. Inquiry. w 29,30. The Lord. Answer. The 1st Com. w 31. The Lord. Answer. The 2nd Com. v 32,33. Scribe. Conviction. u 34. Perception of the Scribe by the Lord.
28 And one of the scribes came up to [Him], and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that He had answered them admirably (or firmly), questioned Him,
Of what nature is the first of all the commandment?" (What are God's promises based on?)
29 And Jesus answered him, "The first of all the commandments is, 'Hear, O Israel; Yehovah our God is one Yehovah: (Quoted from Deut. 6:4,5)
30 And You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart ((figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind)), and with all your soul (inner man), and with all your mind (intellect. Mind twice for emphasis), and with all your strength' (forcefulness):' this is the first commandment.
31 And the second is like, namely this, 'You shall love the one near as yourself' (If it be possible. Includes tough love). (quoted from Lev. 19:18) There is not another commandment greater than these. (There are other commandments.)
32 And the scribe said to Him, "Right, Teacher, You have said according to the truth (i.e. truthfully): that He is One; and there is none other besides Him:
33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the intelligence (Gr. sunesis = a putting together. Not the same word as in v.30, which is dianoia = mind, the thinking faculty), and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices." (Cp. 1 Sam. 15:22. He wants your love, not burnt offerings.)
34 And when Jesus saw that he answered judiciously, he said to him, "You are not far from the kingdom of God." (see Eph. 6:10) And no man after that durst ask him any question.
W x 35-. The Lord. Teaching. The Place. y -35. His question re Scribes' teaching. z 36. The Holy Spirit's Words. y 37-. His question re Scribes' teaching. x -37. The Lord. Teaching. The People.
35 And Jesus answered and said, while He taught in the temple,
"How say the scribes that the Messiah is the son of David?
36 For David himself (these are the Lord's words. He did not "accept the current view", but e spoke from the Father Himself. See Deut. 18:18. John 7:16; 8:28,4647; 12:49; 14:10,24; 17:8. This settles the authorship of Ps. 110.) said by the Holy Spirit (quoted from Ps. 110:1. Midway between Abraham and Messiah, this Psalm was given to David), 'The LORD (the same as Heb. Adonai) said to my Lord, "Sit You at My right hand, till I shall have set Your enemies Your footstool." ' (See Matt. 22:44)
37 David therefore himself calls Him Lord; and from where is He then his son?"
And the great crowd heard Him gladly. (Indicating numerical, not social, distinction.)
X a 38-. Warning. b -38,39. Enemies. Character. b 40-. Enemies. Action. a -40. Condemnation.
38 And He said to them in His teaching, "Take heed away [and keep] away from the scribes,
which desire to walk about in robes, and love salutations in the marketplaces,
39 And the chief seats in the synagogues (see Matt. 23:6), and the first places in feasts:
40 Which eat up widows' houses (being occupied in making wills and conveyances of property, they abused their office), and for a pretense make long prayers:
these shall receive heavier judgment."
U c 41. The many, casting in. d 42. The widow. Her act. d 43. The widow. The Lord's commendation. c 44. The many and the widow.
41 And Jesus sat over against the treasury (situated in the woman's court, occupying about 200 square feet, and surrounded by a colonnade. Inside, against the wall, 13 receptacles, called "trumpets [from their shape]: 9 being for legal dues, and 4 for voluntary contributions. All labeled for their special objects.), and observed thoughtfully how the people were casting copper money into the treasury (called prutah, 2 of which made a farthing 1/4th of a cent U.S.): and many that were rich casting in [as He looked on] many coins. (Referring to number, not value.)
42 And there came one poor widow, and she cast in two mites, which make a farthing.
43 And He called to Him His disciples, and said to them, "Truly I say to you, That this widow; and she a poor one has cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:
44 For all they did cast in out of their abundance; but she of her destitution did cast in the whole that she had, even all her life." (For the means whereby her life was supported: i.e. her livelihood)