B U 1,2-. Herod the Tetrarch. V W -2. The Word of God. Coming to John. X 3. John proclaiming. V W 4-6. The Word of God fulfilled by John. X 7-18. John proclaiming. U 19,20. Herod the Tetrarch.
1 Now in the fifteenth year of the government of Tiberius Caesar (Augustus died in 14 A.D., but Tiberius was associated with him for 2 or 3 years. This would make Tiberius's 15 year 26 A.D.), Pontius Pilate (1st mention. Appointed 6th Procurator of Judaea, 25 A.D. After his deposition, he went to Rome, and [according to Eusebius] committed suicide in 36 A.D.) being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip (Herod Antipas, half-brother of Phillip I, who abducted Phillip's wife, Herodias, and married her. This was the Herod to who the Lord was sent for trial) tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
2 Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, (Caiaphas was the High Priest as successor of Aaron; while Annas was the Nasi, or head of the Sanhedrin [as successor of Moses], and thus associated with Caiaphas in government. Not appointed by God, but by a Roman governor See John 18:13,24, and Act 4:6)
the word of God came (Cp. Jer. 1:2. Ezek. 6:1,&c. John was the last and greatest of the prophets) upon John the son of Zacharias (in Matthew, John the Baptist. From the house of Levi - full-blooded) in the wilderness. (i.e. in the cities and towns of the open country. See v.4; Josh. 15:61,62; and 1 Sam. 23:14,24)
3 And he went into all the country about Jordan, proclaiming the baptism of repentance (same as manna 2:36-38) with a view to remission of sins; (A medical word.)
4 As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, saying (See Isa. 40:3, and Mal. 3:1. See also 1:17), "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Prepare you the way of the Lord (Yehovah) , make His beaten tracks straight. (Teach it like it is. Don't give in to the ways of man)
5 Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; (God's Word will do this)
6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.' " (This is the purpose)
X Y h 7,8. The people. Baptism. i 9-. The Axe. k -9. The Trees. Z l¹ 10. The people. Question. m¹ 11. John's answer. l² 12. The publicans. Question. m² 13. John's answer. l³ 14-. The soldiers. Question. m³ -14. John's answer. Y h; 15,16. The people. Baptism. i 17-. The Fan. k -17,18. The Wheat and the Chaff.
7 He said therefore to the crowds that came forth to be baptized by him, "O offspring of vipers (progeny of Satan. Kenites, sons of Cain), who has forewarned (implying secrecy) you to flee away from the wrath about to come? (Quite true; for, had the nation repented, all that the prophets had foretold, both as to the sufferings and following wrath and glory, would have been fulfilled.)
8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of the repentance [which has been demanded, and which you profess], and begin not to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham to our father:' (Through him Christ would come, not physical father. See John 8:33,53) for I say to you, That God is able out of these stones (cp. 19:40. Matt. 3:9) to raise up children to Abraham. (There is only one way you can convert one who is of Satan. Be very bold and straight-forward. That is love, tough love. It can help. Always be truthful and nice. If a tare accepts God, he is no longer a tare, but a child of God. They must come to repentance.)
9 And already even the axe lies (referring to national privileges) unto the root of the trees:
every tree therefore which bring not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire." (Cp. Matt. 13. The tares. Gos is a consuming fire)
10 And the people asked him, saying, "What shall we do then?" (There was good among them)
11 He answered and said (see Deut. 1:41) to them, "He that has two tunics (cp. Matt. 5:40. One kind of garment put for a garment of any kind), let him impart to him that has not; and he that has food, let him do likewise."
12 Then came the tax-gatherers (politicians) also to be baptized, and said to him, "Teacher, what shall we do?"
13 And he said to them, "Exact nothing more beside that which is appointed you." (Don't over-tax people more than agreed to. Nothing new under the sun)
14 And some soldiers going on service (men under arms. Josephus tells us that Herod Antipas was engaged in a war with Aretas his father-in-law, a petty king in Arabia Petrea, at this very time, and his soldiers were passing from Galilee through the very country were John was proclaiming) likewise demanded of him, saying, "And what shall we do?"
And he said to them, "Terrify with a view to extortion to no man (Sometimes the military would tax but also simply take), neither accuse any falsely (see 19:8); and be content with your wages." (Be honest, friendly, and truthful)
15 And as the people were in expectation (see 2:25,8; 24:21. Mark 15:43), and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John, whether he were the Messiah, or not; (He spoke so boldly and straight forward)
16 John answered, saying to them all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but the One (i.e. He that is mightier) mightier than I comes, the thong of whose sandal (a well known proverb) I am not fit to unloose: He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit (i.e. power from on high, or with spiritual gifts) and with fire: (Of truth. Because this was foretold as being among the things which were about to be fulfilled, had the nation repented. "This [Acts 2:12] is that [Joel 2:30]". It symbolizes the judgments included in that day. If you rub someone the wrong way, heats going to go forth. The One Who is coming is gentle and fair, but also rather stern.)
17 Whose winnowing-fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His threshing-floor, and will gather the wheat into His garner;
but the chaff he will burn up with fire unquenchable." (Gr. katakaiō. No stopping it when final hour comes to pass, the last day of the millennium.)
18 And many different things therefore in his exhortation he announced the glad tidings to the people.
19 But Herod the tetrarch (see Matt. 14:3), being reproved by him concerning Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done, (John didn't hold back, he went right to the head and told him)
20 Added (Gr. prostithemi, a medical word of the sense of apply or minister, used by Luke 13 times) this also to all, that he shut up John in prison. (The fortress of Machærus, on the borders of Arabia north of the Dead Sea)
C A 21-. The Baptism of the Lord. B -21,22. Genealogy. Divine. A 23-. The Age of the Lord. B -23-38. Genealogy. Human.
21 Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized (Christ set the example. Christ did it, are you better than Christ?), and praying, the heaven was opened,
22 And the Spirit Holy Spirit descended in a bodily shape (peculiar to Luke) like a dove upon him, and a voice came out of heaven, which said, "You are My Son, the beloved [Son]; in You I have found delight."
23 And Jesus Himself began [His ministry] He was about thirty years of age, (May was 1/2 Levite, 1/2 Judaite; king line, and priest line. Christ was forever after the order of Melchizedek; King of the just, King of Peace)
being (as reckoned by law (Gr. nomizō = to lay down a thing as law; to hold by custom, or usage; to reckon correctly, take for granted. See Matt. 20:10. Luke 2:44. Acts 7:25; 14:19; 16:13,27)) the son of Joseph (was begotten by Jacob, and was his natural son [Matt. 1:16]. He could be the legal son of Heli, therefore, only by marriage with Heli's daughter [Mary], and be so reckoned so according to law. It does not say "begat" in the case of Heli), who was the son of Heli, (The genealogy of the ideal man begins from his father, and goes backward as far as may be. That of a king begins at the source of his dynasty and ends with himself. Cp. that of Matthew with Luke)
24 Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph,
25 Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge,
26 Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda,
27 Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri,
28 Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er,
29 Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi,
30 Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim,
31 Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan (this is the natural line through Nathan. In Matt. 1:6, the regal line is shown through Solomon. Thus both lines became united in Joseph; thus the Lord being raised from the dead is the one and only heir to the throne of David), which was the son of David,
32 Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Obed, which was the son of Boaz, which was the son of Salmon (Solomon was not in the genealogy of Christ himself), which was the son of Naahshon,
33 Which was the son of Amminadab, which was the son of Ram, which was the son of Hesron, which was the son of Pharez, which was the son of Judah,
34 Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Terah, which was the son of Nahor,
35 Which was the son of Sarug, which was the son of Reu, which was the son of Peleg, which was the son of Eber, which was the son of Salah,
36 Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Shem, which was the son of Noah, which was the son of Lamech,
37 Which was the son of Methuselah, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Mahaleel, which was the son of Cainan,
38 Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God. (Because created by God; the angels are so called, for the same reason)