1 And it came to pass, that on one of those days (those last 6 days), as He was teaching the people in the temple courts (see Matt. 23:16), and announced the glad tidings, (Almost peculiar to Luke and Paul. Luke uses it 25 times and Paul 24 times.)
B7 W X¹ -1-8. Enemies. 1st attack. Authority. Y 9-18. Parable against them. X² 19-26. Enemies. 2nd attack. Tribute money. W X³ 27-40. Enemies. 3rd attack. Resurrection. Y 41-44. Dilemma for them. X4 45-47. Enemies. Disciples warned against them.
X¹ m¹ -1,2. Enemies. Question. The Lord's authority. n¹ 3,4. The Lord's Question in reply. m² 5,6. Enemies. Reasoning. n² 7. The Lord's Question unanswered. m³ 8. Enemies. Answer declined.
the chief priests and the scribes came upon Him (implying suddenness and hostility. See Acts 4:1; 6:12; 23:27. Cp. Mark 11:27) with the elders,
2 And spoke to Him, saying, "Tell us, by what kind of authority do You these things? (i.e. as Priest, Scribe, Prophet, Rabbi, or what? v.2 in religious maters; v.22 in civil maters; v.33 in domestic maters) or Who is He that gave You this authority?"
3 And He answered and said to them, "I also will ask you one question; and answer Me:
4 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men?"
5 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, "If we shall say, 'From heaven;' He will say, 'Why then believed you Him not?'
6 But and if we say, 'Of men;' all the people will stone us to death: for it [the people] have been firmly convinced (implying long settle conviction) that John was a prophet."
7 And they answered, that they did not know from where it was.
8 And Jesus said to them, "Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things."
Y o¹ 9. Proprietor of Vineyard. Action. p¹ 10-15- Husbandman. Conduct. 0² -15. Proprietor of Vineyard. Question. p² 16. Husbandman. Destruction. o³ Proprietor [the Lord]. Application.
9 Then began (see Matt. 21:34,46 and Mark 12:1-12) He to speak to the people this parable (but still in the hearing of the rulers); "A certain man planted a vineyard (see Isa. 5:1-7. Jer. 2:21. Ezek. 15:1-6), and let it forth to husbandmen (i.e. Israel), and left the country for a long time.
10 And at the season he sent a bond-servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him from the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him (this is supplementary, not contradictory to Matthew and Mark), and sent him away empty.
11 And he sent yet a different servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
12 And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out. (See 13:23,34 and Neh. 9:26. 1 Kings 22:24-27. 2 Chron. 24:19-22. Acts 7:52. 1 Thess. 2:15. Heb. 11:36,37)
13 Then said the lord of the vineyard, 'What shall I do? (cp. Gen. 1:26; 6:7) I will send my beloved son: surely they will reverence him when they see him.'
14 But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may become ours.'
15 So they cast him outside of the vineyard, and killed him.
What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do to them?
16 [Some answered] he shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others [of the same kind]." (i.e. a new Israel, not a different Gentile nation) And when they heard it, they said, "May it never be!." (Heb. = the opposite of "Amen")
17 And He looked fixedly at them, and said, "What is this then that has been written (quoted from Ps 118:22. Cp. 19:38), 'The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become into the head of the corner?'
18 Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken to pieces; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder." (See Matt. 21:44)
X² q¹ 19,20. Conspiracy made. r¹ 21,22. Their question. q² 23. Conspiracy perceived. r² 24. The Lord's question. q³ 25,26. Conspiracy silenced.
19 And (cp. Matt. 22:15-22. Mark 12:13-17) the chief priests and the scribes in the same hour sought to lay hands on Him; and they feared the people: for they got to know that He had spoken this parable against them. (Cp. Jer. 18:18.)
20 And they watched Him (cp. 17:20. Cp. 6:7; 14:1. Mark 3:2), and sent forth secret agents (Gr. enkathetos = liers in wait. Josh. 8:14. Job 31:9), which should feign themselves righteous (i.e. honest) men, that they might take hold of His discourse, to the end that they might deliver Him to the rule (the Roman power) and authority of the governor. (Pilate. He alone had the rule as to life and death. So that it was the Lord's life they had in view)
21 And they questioned Him, saying, "Teacher, we know that You say and teach rightly, neither accept You the person of any (see Gal. 2:6. Jas. 2:1. It is a Hebraism. See Lev. 19:15. Mal. 1:8), but teach the way of God with truth:
22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar (= anything brought. Here the poll-tax, which was disputed by scrupulous legalists)>, or no?"
23 But He discerned their cunning, and said to them, "Why tempt you Me?
24 Exhibit to Me a penny. Whose image and superscription has it?" They answered and said, "Caesar's."
25 And He said to them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and to God the things which be God's."
26 And they could not take hold of His words before the people: and they marveled at His answer, and held their peace.
X³ A 27. Sadducees. Questioning. B s 28. Statement of Moses. t 29-31. Hypothetical case. u 32,33. Death and Resurrection. B s 34-. Statement of the Lord. t -34-36. The true case. u 37,38. Death and Resurrection. A 39,40. Sadducees. Silenced.
27 Then came to Him certain of the Sadducees (see Matt. 9:9. Cp. Matt. 22:23-33. Mark 12:18-27.), which say that there is no resurrection (this is the key to what follows); and they asked Him,
28 Saying, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us (see Deut. 23:4), If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he died childless, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
29 There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died childless.
30 And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
31 And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.
32 Last of all the woman also died.
33 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them does she become? for seven had her as wife."
34 And Jesus answering said to them,
"The sons of this age marry (this age as distinguished from the age [or dispensation] that is to come, the age to which resurrection is the door of entrance), and are given in marriage:
35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to attain to that age, and the resurrection from dead people (i.e. leaving them for a subsequent resurrection), neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
36 For neither can they die any more (no more births, marriages, or deaths. 1 cor. 15:52. Rev. 21:4): for they are equal to the angels; and are the sons of God, being the sons of the resurrection.
37 But that corpses are raised, even Moses disclosed (Moses cited before his testimony was in question [v.28]) at the bush (= [in the Scripture] on. Referring to one of the sections known by name. See on 2 Sam. 1:18, "the Bow"; Ezek. 1, "the Chariot". Cp. Rom. 11:2, "Elijah". Quoted from Ex. 3:6), when he calls Yehovah the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
38 For He is not a God of dead [people], but of living [people]: for all live (in resurrection. See Matt. 9:18) by Him."
39 Then certain of the scribes answering said, "Teacher, You have well said."
40 And after that they dared not any more to ask Him any question at all. (He was too sharp for them.)
Y v 41. The Lord's question. "How?" w 42,43. The Scripture. w 44-. The Inference. v -44. The Lord's question. "How?"
41 And He said to them (cp. Matt. 22:41-46, and Mark 12:35-37), "How say they that the Messiah is David's son?
42 And David himself says in the book of Psalms (considering that the Lord spoke only what the Father gave Him to speak [Deut. 18:18,19. John 7:16; 8:28; 12:49; 14:10,24; 17:8,14], it is perilously near blasphemy for a modern critic to say: "nothing can be more mischievous...or more irreverent than to drag in the name of our Lord to support a particular view of Biblical criticism."The Lord's name is not "dragged in". It is He Who is speaking. It is He Who declares in the name of Yahaveh that "David himself wrote these words "in the book of Psalms". It is the denial of this that must"undermine faith in Christ".), 'The Lord said to my Lord (Adonai), 'Sit You on My right hand,
43 Till I set Your enemies as a footstool for Your feet.' ' (Quoted from Ps. 110:1. When death is done away with.)
44 David therefore calls Him Lord, (According to the modern critics it was not David but some one else!)
how is He then his son?"
45 Then as all the people were listening He said to His disciples,
46 "Beware [and keep] from the scribes (Kenites, sons of Cain), which desire to walk in long robes, and love salutations in the markets (see Matt. 23:7, and the front (first, or highest) seats in the synagogues, and the best seats in feasts; (They look so religious, but never get around to teaching God's truth.)
47 Which swallow up widows' houses, and for a pretext make long prayers (they use psychology): the same shall receive greater judgment (or condemnation)." (God hates them. God hates evil!)