F A¹ 19:1. Place. Jericho to Jerusalem. B¹ 19:2-10. Event. Calling of Zacchaæus. A² 19:11. Place. Approaching Jerusalem. B² 19:12-27. Event. Parable. A³ 19:28,29-. Place. Ascending to Jerusalem. B³ 19:-29-36. Event. Mission of the 2. A4 19:36,37-. Place. Descending to Jerusalem. B4 19:-37-44. Events. Progress, &c. A5 19:45-. Place. Jerusalem. The Temple. B5 19:-45,46. Event. Cleansing of the Temple. A6 19:47-. Place. Temple. Teaching. B6 19:-47,48. Event. Conspiracy. A7 20:1-. Place. Temple. B7 20:-1-47. Event. Confutation of Enemies. A8 21:1- Place. Temple. Treasury. B8 21:-1-4. Event. The poor widow. A9 21:5- Place. Temple. Remaining in. B9 21:-5-36. Event. Prophetic Discourse. A10 21:37,38. Place. Temple and Abode. B10 22:1-38. Event. The Last Passover.
(Verses 1-10 are peculiar to Luke.)
1 And Jesus having entered was passing through (after the healing of the blind man. Cp. "come near", 18:35) Jericho. (= place of fragrance. Now Eriha. In medieval times Riha. The city of palm trees [Deut. 34:3. Judg. 1:16]., about 18 miles from Jerusalem, and 6 miles from the Jordan. Cp. Josh 6:26 with 1 Kings 16:34. It afterward became a great and wealthy city with some 100,000 inhabitants)
B¹ c 2-4. Zacchæus. Expectation. d 5,6. The Lord. Detection. e 7. Enemies. Objection. c 8. Zacchæus. Protestation. d 9-. The Lord. Declaration. e -9,10. Enemies. Vindication.
2 And, behold, there was a man called by name Zacchaeus (= pure. Ezra 2:9. Neh. 7:14), which was a chief tax-gatherer (see 3:12 and Matt. 9:9), and he was rich.
3 And he was [busy] seeking to see Jesus (Gr. Iesous is the same as Heb. Yehoshua, or the abbreviated form Yeshua, and means Salvation of Yehovah, or Yehovah the Savior) who He was (not what kind of a person, but which one of the crowd He was. Symbolic of looking for salvation); and could not for the crowd, seeing he was small of stature.
4 And having run forward before, he climbed up onto a sophomore tree (the Egyptian fig, as in John 1:49. See Amos 7:14) to see Him: for He was about to pass through that way.
5 And when Jesus came up to the place (it was His plan), Jesus looked up, and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus (had a destiny), make haste, and come down; for today I must abide (adopting the royal mandate) in your house."
6 And he made haste, and came down, and received Him joyfully.
7 And when they saw it, they all began to murmur aloud, saying, That He was gone to lodge with a man that is a sinful man. (It is sad how "religion" works sometimes.)
8 But Zacchaeus took his stand (see 8:11), and said to the Lord: "Behold, Lord (Gr. Kurios means owner), the half of my goods I give (i.e. I now propose to give. Referring to a present vow, not to a past habit) to the poor (he was a good guy); and if I have taken any thing (assuming an actual fact, no doubt being thrown on it. Not a mere possible case) from any man by false accusation (it was said to mean informing of a breach of the law which forbade the exportation of figs [prohibited, in the times of dearth, by an old Athenian law]; but for this there is no authority. Whatever its origin, it came to mean a malicious accuser. Our Eng. word "sycophant" means a toady. The word sukophantēs [sũkon, a fig; phaino, to show] had something to do with figs, but nobody knows what), I restore him fourfold." (This was the restitution required of a sheep-stealer. [Ex. 22:1])
9 And Jesus said to him, "That this day is salvation come to pass to this house, (Put for household)
insomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. (Put for a descendant.)
10 For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost."
11 And as they heard these things, He went on to speak a parable, on account of [the fact] that He was near to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God was about to at the very moment be manifested. (They didn't know their were two Advents. This is something you have to bare in mind with people today. They will say "document in the O.T. where its stated that there would be two Advents" Its full of them, Ps. 22 Isa. 53, Zech. 9:9,10.)
B² C F 12-. Nobleman. Departure. G -12. His object purposed. D H 13-. Servants. Commissioned. J -13. Their duty. E K 14-. Citizens. Hatred. L -14. Their message. C F 15-. Nobleman. Return. G -15-. His object attained. D H -15. Servants. Summoned. J 16-26. Their reckoning. E K 27-. Citizens. Hatred. L -27. Their execution.
12 He said therefore, "A certain man high born went to a distant country (Its not all going to be in the 1st Advent, He's going away.)
to receive for himself his sovereign power, and to return. (But He [the Lord] will return. This parable is peculiar to Luke. The point of it was that Herod the Great and his son Achelaus had actually gone from Jericho [where the parable was spoken; and where the latter had just rebuilt his palace, to Rome to receive the sovereignty. Herod Antipas subsequently did the same thing)
13 And he called ten bond-servants of his (10 = Testimony; Law and responsibility), and delivered them ten pounds, (Archelaus did thus actually leave money in the trust with his servants, Phillipus being in charge of his pecuniary affairs. Not the same parable as that of the Talents in Matt. 25:14-30, which was uttered later, on the 2nd day before the last Passover)
and said to them, 'Engage in business (or use [as a house where one's business is done. Trade with, share it]) till I come.' (i.e. while I go and return.)
14 But his citizens (or subjects) use to hate him,
and sent an embassy after him, saying, 'We will not have this man to reign over us.' (This was actually done in the case of Achelaus. The Jews appealed to Agustus, on account of the cruelties of Archelaus and the Herods generally. It led ultimately to his deposition. So it was. Who did they want? Satan)
15 And it came to pass, that on his coming back,
having received the kingdom,
then he directed these servants to be called to him, to whom he had given the money, that he might get to know how much every man had gained by trading. (The only thing you can take with you to heaven is your work.)
J M¹ 16. 1st Servant. Gain 10 pounds. N¹ 17. Commendation and Reward. M² 18. 2nd Servant. Gain. 5 pounds. N² 19. Reward. M³ 20. Another Servant. Nothing. N³ 21-26. Censure and Punishment.
16 Then came the first, saying, 'Lord, your pound has gained by labor ten pounds.' (By working it, God gives you what you can handle)
17 And he said to him, 'Well, you good servant: because you hast been faithful in a very little, have you authority (Exactly what Archelaus had then just done) over ten cities.' (Evidently in the kingdom to which the nobleman had returned)
18 And the second came, saying, 'Lord, your pound has made five pounds.'
19 And he said to this one also, 'Become you also over five cities.' (He was fair)
20 And another came, saying, 'Lord, behold, here is your pound, which I was keeping laid up in a handkerchief: (See John 11:44. Hid the truth from others)
N³ f 21. The Servants excuse. g 22,23. The nobleman's retort. f 24,25. The servants punishment. g 26. The nobleman's reply.
21 For I feared you, because you are an harsh (i.e. severe) man: you take up that you lay not down, and reap that you did not sow.' (Typical injustice of those times. The Lord expects you to do some of the sowing.)
22 And he says to him, 'Out of your own mouth will I judge you, you wicked servant (He had told him what to do with it). You knew that I was an harsh man, taking up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow:
23 Wherefore then gave not you my money into the table (of the exchangers), that at my coming I might have required my own with usury?' (Gained a little interest.)
24 And he said to them that stood by, 'Take away from him the pound, and give it to him that has ten pounds.' (Cp. Matt. 21:43. Sound unfair? The job needs to get done.)
25 (And they said to him, 'Lord, he hath ten pounds.')
26 'For I say to you (this is the Lord's own application), That to every one which has (the truth) shall be given; and from him that has not, even that he has shall be taken away from him.
27 But as for those my enemies (the tares), which were unwilling that I should reign over them,
bring here, and cut them down before me.' "
28 And when He had thus spoken, He went on, ascending up to Jerusalem.
(This is the 2nd entry, which was not unexpected as the former was [Matt. 21:1,&c., but pre-arranged [John 12:12,13)
29 And it came to pass, when He was come near to Bethphage (= house of figs) and Bethany (= house of dates, or house of misery. The place of Lazarus. It was the starting point of this 2nd entry. See John 12:1,12; Mark 11:1, whereas in Matt. 21:1 the Lord was at Bethpage), at the mount called the mount of Olives,
B3 O P -29. 2 disciples sent. Q 30-. You shall find. R -30-. Loose him. S T -30. And bring him. U h 31-. If ant object. i -31. "The Lord has need", &c. O P 32-. 2 disciples to go. Q -32. They find as was said. R 33-. They loose the colt. S U h -33. The owners' objection. i 34. "The Lord has need", &c. T 35. They bring him.
He sent two of His disciples,
30 Saying, "Withdraw (not go forward, as in Matt. 21:2) you into the village over against (down and opposite) you; in the which at your entering
you shall find a colt tied (on the former entry, 2 animals were sent for), on which yet never man sat:
loose him, and bring him here.
31 And if any one ask you, 'Why do you loose him?' thus shall you say to him,
'Because the Lord has need of him.' "
32 And they that were sent went their way,
and found even as He had said to them.
33 And as they were loosing the colt,
the owners thereof said to them, "Why loose you the colt?"
34 And they said, "The Lord has need of him."
35 And they led him to Jesus: and they cast their own garments upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon.
36 And as He went, they were strewing under their clothes in the way.
37 And when He was come near, even now to the descent (the 2nd sight of the city after the 1st, owing to a dip in the route) of the mount of Olives,
B4 V¹ -37,38. Crowds. Acclamation. V² 39,40. Enemies. Objection. V³ 41-44. Jerusalem. Commiseration.
the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God (Gr. Theos corresponds generally to Elohim, the Creator, of the O.T.) with a loud voice concerning all the mighty works that they had seen;
38 Saying (quoted from Ps. 118:26), "Blessed be the King that comes in the name of Yehovah: (see Ps. 20:1) peace in heaven, and glory in the highest."
39 And some of the Pharisees from the multitude said to Him, "Teacher, rebuke your disciples."
40 And He answered and said to them, "I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out."
V³ j 41,42-. "If you had known". k -42-. Jerusalem's day of grace. l -42. Consequence. k 43,44-. Jerusalem's day of recompense. j -44. "You knew not".
41 And when He was come near (marking the progress), He looking on the city, wept aloud over it,
(This saying peculiar to Luke)
42 Saying, "If you had known (put for heeding. Cp. Isa. 1:3), even you, at least in this your day, (Put for events taking place in it)
the things for your peace! (See Isa. 48:16 and Ps. 122. Denoting the blessedness involved in this knowledge was overwhelmed by the thought of the tribulation which was to come on account of their ignorance of it.)
but now they are hid from your eyes.
43 For days shall come upon you, that your enemies shall cast a rampart about you (cp. Isa. 29:3,4; 37:33), and compass you round, and keep you in on every side,
44 And shall level (and dash. cp. Ps. 137:9. Hos. 10:14) you even with the ground, and your children within you; and they shall not leave in you stone upon stone;
the reason for which things [is that] you knew not the time of your visitation." (As stated in 1:68 and 78.)
45 And He went into the temple courts,
and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought; (This is a repetition of the Lord's act in Matt. 21:12, but the same as in Mark 11:15, which has supplementary details)
46 Saying to them, "It stands written (quoted from Isa. 56:7, and Jer. 7:11), 'My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a robbers' cave.' " (As in John 10:1,8; 18:40 and 2 Cor. 11:26.)
47 And He was teaching day by day (i.e. on each of these last 6 days) in the temple courts.
But the high priests and the scribes (Kenites, sons of Cain) and the chief of the people sought to destroy Him,
48 And could not find what they might do: for all the people were very attentive to hear Him.