1 Then were drawing near to Him all the tax-gatherers (sometimes they took a little extra) and sinners to hear Him.
N Q 15:2. Pharisees. Murmuring. R S 15:3-32. Address to Pharisees. T 16:1-13. Address to Disciples. Q 16:14. Pharisees. Derision. R S 16:15-31. Address to Pharisees. T 17:1-4. Address to Disciples.
2 And the Pharisees and scribes (many Kenites [sons of Cain] mixed in, and these were the one accusing Him. They translated and quoted they way they wanted it to sound. This settles the scope of all that follows) were muttering (the word implies subdued threatening), saying, "This man receives sinners, and eats with them." (See Matt. 9:10. This is why Christ was sent)
S U¹ V¹ 3-6. The Hundred Sheep. W¹ 7. Application. U² V² 8,9. The 10 Drachmas. W² 10. Application. U³ V³ 11-24. The 2 Sons. W³ 25-32. Application.
3-6. THE 100. 8,9. THE 10. 11-24. THE 2.
V v1 3,4-. The Sheep. V2 v2 8-. The Drachmas. V3 v3 11. The Sons.
w1 -4-. One lost. w2 -8-. One lost. w3 12-16. One lost.
x1 -4. Sought. w2 -8. Sought. x3 17-20-. Sought.
y1 5. Found. y1 9-. Found. y3 -20-22. Found.
z1 6. Joy. z2 -9. Joy. z3 23,24. Joy.
3 And He spoke this parable (it already had been uttered in Matt. 18:12-14 with another object, and with a different condition. It is now repeated, later, under different circumstances [15:1,2], in combination with 2 other similar parables, with quite another application. Hence the change of certain words) to them (This determines the scope of the 3 parables. Many times when He speaks to multitudes, He speaks in parables so that the truth is hidden from the ears of them that aren't meant to hear.), saying,
4 "What man of you (here representing Christ), having an hundred sheep, (100 = God's election, children of promise. Teaching here on 2 and 3 levels)
having one of them, does not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness (a place of wild fertility), and go after that which is lost, until he find it? (Note the importance of this expression.)
5 And having found it, he lays it on his own shoulders (not those of another), rejoicing. He carries it home. (When you can't cut it and have tried your very best)
6 And when having come into the house, he calls together his friends and neighbors, saying to them, 'Rejoice with me (not with the sheep [because of the scope of the parable]. The joy is in heaven); for I have found my sheep which was lost.
7 I (i.e. I knowing. John 1:51) say to you (murmuring Pharisees. This is the point of the parable), that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner repenting, more than over ninety and nine just persons (i.e. the Pharisees), which need no repentance. (Cp. Matt. 3:2)
8 Either (this parable is only recorded in Luke) what woman (here representing the Holy Spirit) having ten (= Testimony; Law and responsibility) pieces of silver, (1 piece = approx. 17 cents)
if she lose one piece,
does not light a lamp, and sweep the house, and seek diligently (a medical word) until she find it?
9 And when she has found it, she calls her friends (female friends) and her neighbors together,
saying, 'Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I lost.' (Cp. "was lost" in v.6)
10 Likewise, I say to you, there becomes (or takes place, or results) joy in before the angels of God (Gr. Theos corresponds generally to Elohim, the Creator, of the O.T.) over one sinner that repents." (It does not say that the angels rejoices; but it is the divine joy in their presence. You have ancestors that have passed on. They are there)
U³ V³ a 12-16. The younger son. b 17-20-. His penitence. c -20. His father's compassion. d 21. The younger son's confession. e 22,23. The father's gifts. f 24. The reason. "For",&c. W³ a 25-27. The elder brother. b 28-. His anger. c -28. The father's entreaty. d 29,30. The elder son's complaint. e 31-32-. The father's gifts. f -32. The reason. "For",&c.
11 And He said (this parable is peculiar to Luke), "A certain man (here representing the Father [God]) had two sons:
12 And the younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me (contrast with "make me" [v.19]) the portion of movable property that falls to me.' (according to Jewish law, in the case of 2 sons the elder took 2/3, and the younger took 1/3 of movable property, at the father's death) And he divided to them (including the elder, who did not ask for it) his living. (Put for his means or property which supported his life. Satan took 1/3 in the 1st earth age. Wasn't happy with his heritage. This will lead ultimately to those who leave God. This is why God hated Esau.)
13 And not many days after (referring to the rapidity of the fall of Israel) the younger son gathered all together, and went abroad into a far country (Cp. Acts 2:39 Eph. 2:17), and there wasted his property living riotously. (Living in the fast lane, squandering his identity and his heritage. He didn't care. Not to many people care today care about their heritage from our Father, and from our ancestors, all races included. They don't worry about pleasing God, as long as they please themselves.)
14 And having spent all, there arose a mighty famine throughout that land; and he began to be in want. (Contrast "began to be merry", v.24. He thought his friend would help him. They did not!)
15 And he went and cleaved (i.e. he forced himself) to one of the citizens of that country ( Prince of this world, Satan. See contrast with Phil. 3:20); and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
16 And he was longing to fill his belly from the pods of the carob tree that the swine were eating: and no man gave to him. (He's starving. See Amos 8:11)
17 And when he came to himself (cp. "came to his father" v.20), he said, 'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare (or abound in food), and I am perishing from the famine! (Humility starting to pick up)
18 I will arise and go to my father, and will say to him, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven (heaven put for God Himself), and before you, (Repentance, see vv. 6,7)
19 And I no longer deserve to be called your son: make me (contrast with "give me" v.12) as one of your hired servants.' '
20 And he arose, and came to his own father. (Symbolic of our heavenly Father. See 2 Pet. 3:9)
But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran (cp. Isa. 6:6, "Then flew". See v.21, and Cp. Isa. 65:24), and fell on his neck, and fervently kissed him.
21 And the son said to him, 'Father, I sinned against heaven (confession of sin is the necessary condition for receiving the blessing. Cp. 2 Sam. 12:15. Ps. 32:5. Isa. 6:5,6. Luke 5:8,&c. And so with Israel [Lev. 26:40-42. Isa. 64:6,7. Hos. 5:15; 14:1,2]), and in your sight, and am no more worthy to be called your son.' (He did not finish what he meant to say.)
22 But the father said to his bond-servants, 'Bring forth the first robe (either the that comes to hand, or the former robe the son used to wear. See. Gen. 27:15), and clothe him with it (check him out); and put a signet-ring for his hand (see Jas. 2:2 and cp. Gen. 41:42), and sandals for his feet: (He restored him. The ring and the sandals mark a free man. Servants went barefoot)
23 And bring here the fatted calf, and sacrifice it (it was a sacrificial feast); and let us eat, and be merry: (Even heaven rejoices.)
24 For this my son was dead (he had been as a dead man to his father. Mortally), and is alive again; he was lost, and was found.' (i.e. "when he came to himself", v.17, which shows this was the result of the father's seeking) And they began to be merry.
25 Now his elder son (this is the point of the parable. It was addressed "to them" specially, as the correction of their murmuring) was in the field (working up a sweat. Symbolic of the elect. Rom. 8): and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. (Gr. symphonies and chorus, i.e. a "choral dance".)
26 And he called to him one of the young men, and began to inquire what these things might be. (What's going on over there?)
27 And he said to him, 'Your brother is come; and your father has killed the fatted calf, because he has received him safe and sound.' (Corresponding with the father's dead and lost...alive and found [v.24]. Are yo mortal or eternal? Mortal = liable to die.)
28 And he was angry (referring to the deep-seated feeling of the Pharisees against Messiah and those who followed Him. This increased steadily [and is seen even to this day]. Cp. Acts 2:3,17,18; 13:45,50; 14:5,19; 17:5,6,13; 18:12,13; 19:9; 21:27-31; 22:18-22. Gal. 5:11. 1 Thess. 2:14-18), and was not willing to go in: (He was hurt.)
therefore came his father out, and entreated him. (This is for you, so you don't become like the Pharisees and the scribes.)
29 And he answering said to his father, 'Lo, these many years do I serve you, neither transgressed I (this was the Pharisees' claim, and boast) at any time your commandment (from the 1st earth age, I never left you): and yet you never gave me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: (In contrast with "harlots", v.30. Don't be jealous how God blesses a brother or sister when they come into the truth, now or down the road, it doesn't matter, not yet.)
30 But as soon as this your son (not "my brother". Contrast with "your brother", v.32) came as though a stranger (not "returned"), which has eaten up (contrast with v.23) your (malignant thought) living with harlots (contrast with "my friends", v.29), you have killed for him the fatted calf.' (Look at mystery Babylon)
31 And he said to him, 'Child (affectionately reminding him of his birth), you are always with me, and all that I have is yours. (See Rom. 9:4,6, and cp. Matt. 20:14. It all belongs to you. See Ezek. 44:26 - Zadock)
32 It was necessary (cp. Act 11:11. Binding God's plan) that we should make merry, and be glad: (See Acts 23:10,11)
for this you brother (contrast with "your son", v.30) was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.' " (This is our purpose. Reality, not religion.)