A¹ 1:1-7:38. The Offerings and their laws. B¹ D 8:1-10:20. Priesthood. E 11:1-15:33. Ceremonial Laws (Promulgation). C 16:1-34. Israel's Fast (Day of Atonement). A² 17:1-16. The Offerings and their requirements. B² E 18:1-20:27. Ceremonial laws (Penalties). D 21:1-22:33. Priesthood. C 23:1-25:55. Yahaveh's Feasts. A³ 26:1-27:34. The offerers and the charge.LEVITICUS. From the Septuagint and Vulgar, because thought to be pertaining to the Levites.
The Hebrew name = vayyikra, being the first word = "And He called".
Leviticus therefore, is the Book relating to worship: for only those whom God thus "calls" does He seek to worship Him. John 4:23, and compare Ps. 65:4 - "Blessed is the man whom You choose, and cause to approach to You, that he may dwell in Your courts."
All its types relate to worship, as those of Exodus relate to Redemption.
The Holy Spirit is not once named, though referred to in all other Books of the Pentateuch, because all here relates to Christ; and it is the Spirit's work to glorify Christ (John 16:14).
The whole of Leviticus, and Num. 1:1-10:10, come between the first day of the first month (March 21-22) and the twentieth day of the second month (May 9-10th. Compare Num. 10:11), on the hypothesis that Israel would forthwith advance and enter the land.
The Book is generally held to have been written by Moses.Those critics even hold a different opinion as to the other Books of the Pentateuch assign this Book in the main to him. One of the most notable features of the Book is what may be called its spiritual meaning. That so elaborate a ritual looked beyond itself we cannot doubt. It was a prophecy of things to come; a shadow whereof the substance was Christ and His kingdom. We may not always be able to say what the exact relation is between the type and the anti-type; but we cannot read the Epistle to the Hebrews and not acknowledge that the Levitical priests "served the pattern and type of heavenly things"; that the sacrifices of the law pointed to and found their interpretation in the Lamb of God; that the ordinances of outward purification signified the true inner cleansing of the heart and conscience from dead works to serve the living God. One idea - HOLINESS - moreover penetrates the whole of this vast and burdensome ceremonial, an gives it a real glory even apart from any prophetic significance.
A¹ D 1:1,2. Introduction (General). x E 1:3-17. Burnt offerings. F 2:1-16. Meal offerings. G a 3:1-17. Peace offerings. b 4:1-6:7. Sin offerings. x E 6:8-13. Burnt offerings. F 6:14-23. Meal offerings. G b 6:24-7:10. Sin offerings. a 7:11-34. Peace offerings. D 7:35-38. Conclusion (Particular).
20th March 1490 B.C.
1: And (This connects Lev. very closely with Ex., as Ex. is linked to Gen.) The Lord (Yahaveh, Whose glory filled the Tabernacle [or dwelling place], Ex. 40:35. No other book contains so many words of Yahaveh: "Yahaveh spoke", 36 times [see 5:14]; "I am Yahaveh", 21 times' "I am Yahaveh your Elohim", 21 times; "I am", 3 times; "I, Yehovah, do", twice) called (the last letter of this word in Heb. is minuscular, i.e. smaller than the others. This calling is in contrast with the thunders of Sinai) to Moses, and spoke to him (see 5:14) out of the tent of the congregation (there are 4 such calls; 1 from the burning bush, Ex. 3:4; 2 73 from Sinai, Ex. 19:3,20; and here), saying,
2: "Speak to the sons of Israel, and say to them (cp. note on Jer. 7:22,23), 'If any man (Heb. 'adam, i.e. a descendant of Adam, not the priest) of you bring an admittance offering (all the offerings were what God had first given to man; only such can be accepted by Him) to The Lord, you all shall bring your admittance offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock.
(Yahaveh begins with the burnt offering and ends with the sin offering: we in our approach, begin with the sin offering and end with the burnt offering.)
3: If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd (so called from the Hiphil of the verb 'alah, to cause to ascend as the flame and smoke ascend by burning. In Greek holocausta, which conveys its meaning as wholly burnt), let him offer a male (a female permitted in some offerings but not here, because of the type. Christ not the sin-bearer here, as in ch.4) without blemish(Heb. tamin, said of all sacrifices, and the same of Noah, Gen.6:9): he shall offer it of his own voluntary will(not the same as a freewill offering. This is not a freewill offering. Heb. here = "to be accepted for him", i.e. in his stead. Cp. v.4. Cp. Ex. 28:38. Lev. 19:5; 22:19,20,29; 23:11. There was a double transfer: the unworthiness of the offerer was transferred to the victim; and the acceptableness of the offering was transferred to the offerer. This is confined to the burnt offerings and peace offerings; never with the sin offerings) at the entrance of the tent of the congregation before the Lord.
4: And he shall put (Heb. lean, place, press. It could not be done by proxy. This was all that the sinner could do. It was for God to accept) his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. (Heb. kaphar, to cover the sinner and the sin, so that neither is seen. See Ex. 29:23. No such thing as progress in justification)
5: And he shall kill the bullock before The Lord (the sacrificer himself killed the sacrifice: the priest received the blood): and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle (= dash, Heb. throw or jerk) the blood round about upon the altar that is by the entrance of the tent of the congregation.
6: And he shall flay (= have it flayed, skin not offered with burnt offering, only with the sin offering) the burnt offering, and cut it into his pieces. (To show that all was without blemish)
7: And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay logs in order upon the fire: (no other fuel might be used)
8: And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood (because with the future Anti-type all was to be in order) that is on the fire which is upon the altar:
9: But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water (to render the sacrifice like the Anti-type. Cp. Eph. 5:26, all in order of God's word): and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a savor of satisfaction to The Lord. (Cp. Gen. 8:21)
10: And if his admittance offering (Heb. korban from karab. It is the present brought, to this day in the East, in order to secure an audience, or see the face of the superior, and find an access to his presence. Hence today called "the face offering". When the admittance has been secured and entrance has been obtained, then the real offering or present was to be given. Hence Korban is essentially an admittance offering; securing the entree. Cp. the verb, Judg. 3:18. Cp. its use in the New Testament, Matt. 5:23; 8:4; 23:18. Mark 7:11. Heb. 5:1) be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt sacrifice; he shall bring it a male without blemish.
11: And he (individual) shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the Lord: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar.
12: And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat: and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar:
13: But he shall wash the inwards and the legs with water: and the priest shall bring it all, and burn it upon the altar: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a savor of satisfaction to The Lord.
14: And if the burnt sacrifice for his offering to the Lord be of fowls, then he shall bring his admittance offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons.
15: And the priest shall bring it to the altar (to make up for the humble offering, the priest did this instead of the offerer), and wring off his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar:
16: And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers (or filth), and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes:
17: And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a savor of satisfaction to the Lord.