1: And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, which were on the side of Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, which were by the sea, heard that the Lord (Yahaveh) had dried up the waters of Jordan from before the sons of Israel, until they were passed over, that their heart melted (see note on 2:9,11), neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the sons of Israel.
2: At that time the Lord said to Joshua, “Make you sharp knives, and circumcise again the sons of Israel the second time” (not repeated as an act on the person, but on the nation on a second occasion [cp. for this usage Isa.11:11 and Jude 5], implying that the rite was performed in Egypt. See vv.4-7).
3: And Joshua made him sharp knives, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins.
4: And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise: All the people that came out of Egypt, that were males, even all the men of war, died in the wilderness by the way, after they came out of Egypt.
5: Now all the People that came out were circumcised: but all the People that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, them they had not circumcised.
6: For the sons of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the People that were men of war (= nation. Some codices read "generation"), which came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they listened not to the voice of the Lord: to whom the Lord swore that He would not show them the land, which the Lord swore to their fathers that He would give us, a land that flows with milk and honey.
7: And their children, whom He raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised: for they were uncircumcised, because they had not circumcised them by the way.
March 30th thru April 2nd, 1451 B.C.
8: And it came to pass, when they had done circumcising all the people, that they abode in their places in the camp, till they were whole.
9: And the Lord said to Joshua, “This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you. Wherefore the name of the place is called Gilgal (= a wheel, rolling) to this day.”
3rd April, 1451 B.C.
10: And the sons of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the passover (some codices add "in the first month". The second of 10 Passovers recorded. See Ex.12:28) on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.
11: And they did eat of the old corn of the land on the next day after the passover (Feast of unleavened bread ended 10th April [21st Abib] at evening, exactly 40 years from Ex.12:41), unleavened cakes, and parched corn in the selfsame day.
12: And the manna ceased on the next day after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; neither had the sons of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit (= produce) of the land of Canaan that year.
C b¹ 13-. The Captain. Vision c¹ -13. Joshua. Question asked. b² 14-. The Captain. Revelation. c² -14. Joshua. Worship accepted. b³ 15-. The Captain. Direction. c³ -15. Joshua. Obedience given.
between 4th and 10th April, 1451 B.C.
13: And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a Man over against him with His sword drawn in his hand:
and Joshua went to Him, and said to Him, “Are You for us, or for our adversaries?”
14: And He said, “No; but as Captain (or Prince) of Israel as the Lord's host am I now come.” (cp. Ex. 12:41)
And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship (therefore Divine. Cp. Rev. 19:10; 22:9), and said to Him, “What says my Lord to His servant?”
15: And the Captain of the Lord's host said to Joshua, “Loose your shoe from off your foot (cp. Ex.3:5. The origin of a solemn Eastern custom of reverence observed to this day.); for the place whereon you stand is holy” (= set apart).
And Joshua did so.