N T 10:1,2. Confederacy against Gibeon, Adoni-zedec. U 10:3-27. Kings. V 10:28-39. Cities. W 10:40-43. Territory. N T 11:1-. Confederacy against Israel. U 11:-1-9. Kings. V 11:10-14. Cities. W 11:15-17. Territory.
1: Now it came to pass, when Adoni-zedek (= lord of justice) king (note lower case "k") of Jerusalem (= vision of peace. First occ. is connected with war, and next mention is seige and fire [Judg.1:8]; called Jebus [Judg. 19:10-11]. Assigned by Joshua to Benjamin [Josh. 18:28]) had heard how Joshua had taken Ai (cp. 8:23-29), and had utterly destroyed it; according as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;
2: That they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, as one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty.
U g 3,4-. Message of Adoni-zedec to the kings. h -4. Reason. i 5. Enemies' assemblage for war. g 6-. Message of Gibeonites to Joshua. h -6. Reason. i 7-27. Israel's assemblage for war.
3: Wherefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham (= whom Yahaveh impels) king of Hebron, and to Piram (= like a wild ass; fleet) king of Jarmuth, and to Japhia (= splendid) king of Lachish, and to Debir (= a sanctuary) king of Eglon, saying,
4: “Come up to me, and help me, that we may smite Gibeon:
for it has made peace with Joshua and with the sons of Israel.”
5: Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon, gathered themselves together, and went up, they and all their hosts, and encamped before Gibeon, and made war against it.
6: And the men of Gibeon sent to Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying, “Slack not your hands from your servants; come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us:
for all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the hill country are gathered together against us.”
i j 7. March. k 8. Promise. j 9. March. k 10-27. Performance.
7: So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he, and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor.
8: And the Lord said to Joshua, “Fear them not: for I have delivered them into your hand; and there shall not a man of them stand before you.”
9: Joshua therefore came to them suddenly, and went up from Gilgal all night.
k l¹ 10-14. By Yahaveh before the Flight. l² 15-27. By Joshua after the Flight.
l¹ m¹ 10. By the sword of Israel. m² 11. By the hailstones from the clouds. m³ 12-14. By the sun in the heavens.
10: And the Lord discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goes up to Beth-horon (= hose of caverns = the upper Beth-horon, which stood at the head of the Pass to the coast), and smote them to Azekah (= dug over. Near Shochoh, where Goliath afterwards opposed Israel [1 Sam.17:1]), and to Makkedah (= place of shepherds).
11: And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, that the Lord cast down great stones from the heaven (i.e. the clouds) upon them to Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the sons of Israel slew with the sword.
12: Then spoke Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites, [when He destroyed them in Gibeon, and they were destroyed] before the son of Israel (this is supplied in the Septuagint), and he said in the sight of Israel, “Sun (= the sun itself, because of what is said in the next verse), stand you still in Gibeon (Hab. 3:11. This is not the only miracle in connection with the sun. See shadow going back [2 Kings 20:11. Isa. 38:8]. Going down at noon [Amos 8:9]. No more going down [Isa. 60:20]. Darkened [Isa. 13:10. Ezek. 32:7. Joel 2:10,31; 3:15. Matt. 24:29. Rev. 6:12; 8:12; 9:2; 16:8]. Miracle to be again performed [Luke 23:44,45]. His motion described [Ps. 19:4-6); and you, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.” (= place of gazelles)
13: And the sun waited silently, and the moon stayed, until the People had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? (Why may not this be "the Book of the Upright", another name for Israel, like Jesurun? See Deut. 32:15. It is also Arabic and Syriac. It is mentioned in 2 Sam.1:18. In the Targum it is "the Book of the Law". Josephus appeals to it as a book in he temple, which probably perished with it. Two spurious books so called. A.D. 1394 and 1625) So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.
14: And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened to the voice of a man: for the Lord fought for Israel.
l² n p 15. Return to camp at Gilgal. q 16-18. Five kings shut up. o 19,20. Pursuit of host. n p 21. Return to camp at Makkedah. q 22-27. Five kings brought out.
15: And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp to Gilgal.
16: But these five kings fled, and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah.
17: And it was told Joshua, saying, The five kings are found hid in a cave at Makkedah.
18: And Joshua said, “Roll great stones upon the mouth of the cave, and set men by it for to keep them:
19: And stay you all not, but pursue after your enemies, and smite the hindmost of them; suffer them not to enter into their cities: for the Lord your God has delivered them into your hand.”
20: And it came to pass, when Joshua and the sons of Israel had made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were consumed, that the rest which remained of them entered into fenced cities.
21: And all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace: none moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel.
22: Then said Joshua, “Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings to me out of the cave.”
23: And they did so, and brought forth those five kings to him out of the cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.
24: And it came to pass, when they brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the captains of the men of war which went with him, “Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these five kings.” And they came near, and put their feet upon the necks of them.
25: And Joshua said to them, “Fear not, nor be dismayed, be strong and of good courage (see Deut. 31:6): for thus shall the Lord do to all your enemies against whom you all fight.”
26: And afterward Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five trees: and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening.
27: And it came to pass at the time of the going down of the sun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees (cp. Deut. 21:22,23), and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid great stones in the cave's mouth, which remain until this very day.
V r¹ 28. Makkedah taken. s¹ 29. Advance to Libnah. r² 30. Libnah taken. s² 31. Advance to Lachish. r³ 32,33. Lachish taken. s³ 34. Advace to Eglon. r4 35. Eglon taken. s4 36. Advance to Hebron. r5 37. Hebron taken. s5 38. Advance to Debir. r6 39. Debir taken.
28: And that day Joshua took Makkedah, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain: and he did to the king of Makkedah according as he did to the king of Jericho.
29: Then Joshua passed from Makkedah, and all Israel with him, to Libnah (= whiteness. Afterward one of the cities of the priests. Josh.21:13. See 2 Chron.21:10), and fought against Libnah:
30: And the Lord delivered it also, and the king thereof, into the hand of Israel; and he smote it with the edge (= mouth) of the sword, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain in it; but did to the king thereof as he did to the king of Jericho.
31: And Joshua passed from Libnah, and all Israel with him, to Lachish (= invincible. Destroyed and rebuilt 7 times. A strong city, as shown by recent excavations), and encamped against it, and fought against it:
32: And the Lord delivered Lachish into the hand of Israel, which took it on the second day (A most significant statement. In 2 Kings 18:17. 2 Chron. 32:9, Sennacherib besiege it; yet when Rabshakeh returned from Jerusalem he found the siege raised [2 Kings 19:8]. Similar proof of its strength given in Jer. 34:7), and smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein, according to all that he had done to Libnah.
33: Then Horam king of Gezer (= a precipice. See 1 Kings 9:16,17) came up to help Lachish; and Joshua smote him and his people, until he had left him none remaining.
34: And from Lachish Joshua passed to Eglon (= calf-like. About 2 miles east of Lachish, now Ajlan), and all Israel with him; and they encamped against it, and fought against it:
35: And they took it on that day, and smote it with the mouth of the sword, and all the souls that were therein he utterly destroyed that day, according to all that he had done to Lachish.
36: And Joshua went up from Eglon, and all Israel with him, to Hebron (= alliance. Before called Kirjath-arba, Judg. 1:10. Some Canaanites afterwards returned here, Judg. 1:9-11); and they fought against it:
37: And they took it, and smote it with the mouth of the sword, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof, and all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining, according to all that he had done to Eglon; but destroyed it utterly, and all the souls that were therein.
38: And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to Debir (= Oracle, a sanctuary: South of Hebron. Called Kirjath-sepher = Book Town [15:15. Judg. 1:11], and Kirjath-sannah = Precept Town [15:49]); and fought against it:
39: And he took it, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof; and they smote them with the mouth of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining: as he had done to Hebron, so he did to Debir, and to the king thereof; as he had done also to Libnah, and to her king.
40: So Joshua smote all the land of the hill country, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed (= had soul, nephesh), as the Lord God of Israel commanded (cp. Deut. 20:16,17).
41: And Joshua smote them from Kadesh-barnea (= holy desert of wanderings. This verse describes Joshua's conquests West, South, and North) even to Gaza (= the fortified, the strong), and all the country of Goshen, even to Gibeon.
42: And all these kings and their land did Joshua take at one time, because the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel (for reason, see Gen. 6:2,4).
43: And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp to Gilgal.