B A1 18:1-19:30. Death. Events leading up to it. A2 19:31-42. Burial. A3 20:1-31. Resurrection.
A1 B 18:1-11. The arrest. C 18:12-27. Trial before Annas. C 18:28-19:16. Trial before Pilot. B 19:17-30. The Crucifixion.
B y 1-3. Judas. Treachery. z 4-9. The Lord. Avowal. y 10. Peter. Zeal. z 11. The Lord. Resignation.
1 Jesus, having spoken these things, He went forth (i.e. from the place where He had speaking, 14:31) with His disciples over the brook (a winter torrent) Cedron (Outside the East Gate. Called Kidron [2 Sam. 15:23] = valley of judgment. David crossed it, when with a few faithful followers he fled from Absalom), where was a garden (an orchard or plantation. Cp. Luke 13:19), into the which He entered, and His disciples.
2 And Judas also, which betrayed Him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted there with His disciples. (Common meeting place)
3 Judas then, having received a band (= the cohort; the word means the 10th part of a legion, therefore 600 men; but the term was probably used with some latitude) of men and officers (the Temple guard) from the chief priests and Pharisees (These were Sadducees [Acts 5:17]. So Sadducees and Pharisees sunk their differences in order to destroy Him, just as Herod and Pilate were made friends [Luke 28:12] over His condemnations), comes there with lanterns and torches and weapons. (The swords and staves of Luke 22:52. Not the Roman army! Bunch of cowards!)
4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon Him, went forth, and said to them, "Whom do you seek?"
5 They answered him, "Jesus the Nazarene (for some reason Nazareth had an evil name [1:46], so Nazarene was a term of reproach. The name has nothing to do with Nazarite [separated] applied to Joseph [Ge. 49:26], and like Samson who took the vow of Num. 6)." Jesus said to them, "I am He." And Judas also, which betrayed Him, stood with them.
6 As soon then as He had said to them, I am He, they went backward, and fell to the ground. (He has power over His enemies. Ps. 9:1-6)
7 Then demanded He them again, "Whom do you seek?" And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth."
8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am He: if therefore you seek Me, let these go their way: (Who wouldn't have started a church if they weren't killed? See Isa. 53.)
9 In order that the saying might be fulfilled, which He spoke, "Out of them which You gave Me have I lost not one." (Satan's prime name)
10 Simon Peter therefore having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's bond-servant (Malchus had advanced so as to seize the Lord, and thus became the object of Peter's attack), and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.
11 Then said Jesus to Peter, "Put up your sword into the sheath: the cup which My Father has given Me, shall I in no wise drink it?"
C D 12-14. The Lord led away to Annas. E 15-18. Peter. Denial. D 19-24. The Lord examined by Annas. E 25-27. Peter. Denial.
12 Then the band and the captain (= a commander of a thousand. One of the 6 tribunes to a legion. His presence shows the importance attached by the Romans to the arrest, the Jews having represented it as a case of dangerous sedition) and officers of the Jews (Kenites) took Jesus (i.e. surrounded and seized), and bound Him,
13 And led him away to Annas first (He had been deposed 779 a.u.c., the year our Lord's ministry began, and 3 others had been promoted and deposed before Caiaphas was appointed by Valerius Gratus. Our Lord was taken to Annas first, because his experience in the Law would the better enable him to formulate a charge against Him); for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.
14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die in behalf of the people.
15 And Simon Peter was following Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known to the high priest (probably someone of influence, as Nicodemus or Joseph of Arimathea, both members of the Sanhedrin), and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. (Originally the court, open to the air, around which the house was built, then the house itself.)
16 But Peter was standing at the door outside. Then went out that other disciple, which was known to the high priest, and spoke to the door-keeper (female porters were not uncommon), and brought in Peter.
17 Then said the damsel that kept the door to Peter, "Are not you also one of this Man's (= this fellow's. Spoken in contempt) disciples?" He said, "I am not."
18 And the servants and officers stood there (the Chiliarch and Roman soldiers had gone back to their barracks [Antonia], leaving the Lord in the hands of the Jews), who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.
19 The high priest then asked Jesus concerning His disciples, and of His doctrine. (To illicit something to be used)
20 Jesus answered him, "I have spoken openly to the world; I ever taught in synagogues, and in the temple courts, where the Jews always resort; and in secret I said nothing.
21 Why do you ask me? ask them which heard Me, what I said to them: behold, they know what I said."
22 But He having said these things, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, "You answer the high priest so?" (This beginnings of indignities may have been with or without a weapon.)
23 Jesus answered him, "If I spoke evilly, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why do you smite Me?" (It has been alleged against the Lord that He did not carry out His own precept in Matt. 5:39. But those words were spoken during the first part of His ministry, when the kingdom was being proclaimed. This was when the kingdom had been rejected, and the King was about to be crucified. Cp. Luke 22:35-38.)
24 Now Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. (This shows that this preliminary inquiry was conducted by Annas. John omits the trial before Caiaphas.)
25 And Simon Peter was standing warmed himself. They said therefore to him, "Art not You also one of His disciples?" He denied it, and said, "I am not."
26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, said, "Did not I see you in the garden with Him?"
27 Again therefore Peter denied again: and immediately a cock crowed.
C F H1 18:28-32. Pilate and the Jews. J 18:33-38-. Examination by Pilate. H2 18:-38-40. Pilate. Release proposed. G 19:1-3. Scourging. F H3 19:4-7. Pilate and the Jews. No fault. J 19:8-11. Further examination. H4 19:12-14. Pilate. Release sought. G 19:15.16. Deliverance to death.
28 Therefore (this follows the decision of the Sanhedrin recorded in Matt. 15:16. Probably connected with the castle of Antonia, built by Herod the Great and named after Mark Antony. It was not Herod's palace, as is clear from Luke 23:7) led they Jesus from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment: and it was early (i.e. in the early hours of the Preparation between 11 pm. and midnight); and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, in order that they might not be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
29 Pilate then went outside to them, and said, "What charge do you bring against this Man?
30 They answered and said to him, "If He were not an evildoer , we would not have delivered Him up to you." (They expected Pilate to take their word for it.)
31 Then said Pilate to them, "Take Him yourselves, and judge Him according to your law." The Jews (Kenites) therefore said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put any one to death:" (For violations of their law they seem to have had the power of stoning to death. But they feared the people, and so had determined to raise the plea of rebellion against Caesar and throw the odium of the Lord's death upon Pilate.)
32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which He spake, signifying what death He is about to die.
33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said to Him, "Are You the King of the Jews?" (This shows the malicious charge the Jews [Kenites] had made.)
34 Jesus answered him, "Do you say this thing from yourself, or did others tell it to you of Me?"
35 Pilate answered, "Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to Me: what did You do?"
36 Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world (present dispensation): if My kingdom were of this world, then would My servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews (Kenites among Judahites): but now is My kingdom not from here."
37 Pilate therefore said to Him, "So then a king You are?" Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. To this (i.e. for this purpose) was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Every one that is of the truth hears My voice." (Know the mystery of the Kingdom)
38 Pilate said to Him, "What is truth?" (The question of many a man. Pilate was not "jesting", as Lord Bacon says. He was doubtless sick of the various philosophies and religions which contended for acceptance.)
And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews (Kenites), and said to them, "I find in Him no fault at all.
39 But you have a custom, that I should release to you one at the passover: do you wish that I release to you the King of the Jews? (It was the taunt that led them to retort by the threat of high treason against Pilate himself.)
40 Then they all cried aloud (shouted) again, saying, "Not this fellow, but Barabbas." Now Barabbas was a robber. (A bandit, a highway robber. They chose the robber, and the robber has ruled them to this day.)