N2 T1 1,2-. Assemblage. U1 -2,3. Place and Act. "I will plead." V1 4-8. Judgment. Threatened. T2 9-12-. Assemblage. U2 -12. Place and Act. "I will judge." V2 13. Judgment. Executed. T3 14-. Assemblage. U3 14. Place and Act. Time. V3 15,16-. Judgment. Threatened.
1 For (binding this portion to what immediately precedes), behold, in those days, and in that time (the prophecy, instead of contracting, widens out to the final judgment of the nations [Matt. 25:31-46, "when the Son of Man shall come in His glory...and sit upon the throne of His glory"]. There is no resurrection in this chapter or in that. Here we have the nucleus of the nations of Rev. 21:24), when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem, (The idiom for returning the fortunes of. Ref. Deut. 30:3. Cp. Job 42:10. Ps. 126:1,4. Ezek. 18:53,&c. Amos 9:14.)
2 I will also gather (cp. Zech. 14:2-4) all nations (put for representatives or people from all nations), and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat (between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Mentioned only here and in v.12; the event recorded in 2 Chron. 20:21-26 being typical of this scene of the future judgment of the nations. Jehoshaphat = Yahaveh has judged), and will judge them there for My People and for My heritage Israel (The judgment of Matt. 25 turn on how the nations had treated "My brethren", not upon the grounds of justification by faith. Israel: note this; not merely Judah, but the 12 tribed nation), whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted My land.
3 And they have cast lots for My People; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink. (This describes the past sufferings. Cp. Obad. 16.Nah. 3;11.)
4 Yes, and what have you to do with Me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the region of Philistia? will you pay back Me a recompense? and though you recompense Me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompense upon your own head;
5 Because you have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My goodly things of desire (or, valuable things. Cp. Dan. 11:38.):
6 The sons also of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem have you sold to the Grecians, that you might remove them far from their border.
7 Behold, I will raise them out of the place where you have sold them (cp. Isa. 43:5,6 with 49:12. Jer. 23:8), and will return your recompense upon your own head:
8 And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the sons of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans (defined as a distant nation. See Job 1:15), to nations far off: for the LORD has spoken it.
9 Proclaim you this among the nations (cp. Isa. 8:9,10. Jer. 46:34,4); Hallow war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up:
10 Beat your plowshares into swords and your pruning-hooks into spears (this precedes the opposite command to be given after this in Isa. 2:4 and Mic. 4:3, when Hos. 2:18 shall be fulfilled): let the weak say, "I am strong."
11 Assemble yourselves (cp. 3:2), and come, all you nations, and gather yourselves together round about: there (to the valley of Jehoshaphat) cause Your mighty ones (cp. Ps. 103:20. Isa. 13:3) to come down, O LORD.
12 Let the nations be wakened (cp. 3:2), and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat (cp. Pss. 96:13; 98:9; 110:6; Isa. 2:4; 3:13. Mic. 4:3): for there will I sit to judge all the nations round about. (See v.2.)
13 Put you in the vintage-knife (cp. Matt. 13:39. Rev. 14:15,18), for the vintage is ripe (cp. Jer. 51:33. Hos. 6:11): come, go in (i.e. into the wine-press = tread you); for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great.
14 Multitudes, multitudes (great multitudes) in the valley of threshing (i.e. judgment. Cp. Isa. 41:15): for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of threshing. (Defining the time as well as the place. Cp. 2:1.)
15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining. (Cp. 2:10,31.)
16 But the LORD also shall thunder out of Zion (cp. Jer. 25:30. Ezek. 38:18-22. Amos 1:2), and utter His voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake (cp. 2:10. Hag. 2:6): but the LORD will be the refuge of His People (cp. Isa. 51:5,6), and the stronghold of the sons of Israel.
17 So shall you know that I am the LORD your God dwelling in Zion (cp. 2:27. Ezek. 6:7), My holy mountain (cp. Dan. 11:45. Obad. 16 Zech. 8:3): then shall Jerusalem be holiness, and there shall no foreigners pass through her any more. (Cp. Isa. 35:8; 52:1. Nah. 1:15. Zech. 14:21. Rev. 21:27.)
18 And it shall come to pass in that day (cp. v.1), that the mountains shall distill sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk (cp. Amos 9:13), and all the rivers of Judah (the country; not the People) shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth out of the house of the LORD (Ezek. 47:1. Zech. 14:8. Rev. 22:1), and shall water the valley of the acacias. (Ref. Num. 33:49.)
19 Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land. (Deut. 19:10; 27:25.)
20 But Judah shall remain (or, be established) for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.
21 For I will clear their blood that I had not cleared (this could be done only by avenging it; for God will "by no means clear the guilty" [Ex. 34:7. Num. 14:18]; and Egypt, Edom, &c. were guilty [v.19], and are not to be 'cleansed', but punished for shedding Judah's blood. This would be a vivid ref. to Deut. 32:42,43, the parallel event. Cp. Rev. 6:10,11.): for the LORD is about to make His dwelling in Zion. (Thus ending like Ezekiel [Ezek. 48:35], Yahaveh Shammah = The Lord is there! Cp. 3:17. Ps. 87:3. Rev. 21:3.)