A B 50:1. The word of Yahaveh to Jeremiah. Declaration. C1 D1 50:2,3. Babylon. E1 50:4-7. Israel and Judah. C2 D2 50:8-16. Babylon. E2 50:17-20. Israel. C3 D3 50:21-32. Babylon. E3 50:33,34. Israel and Judah. C4 D4 50:35-51:4. Babylon. E4 51:5. Israel and Judah. C5 D5 51:6-18. Babylon. E5 51:19. Judah. [Portion.] C6 D6 51:20-33. Babylon. E6 51:34-58. Zion and Jerusalem. B 51:59-64-. The word of Yahaveh to Seraiah. Ratification.
1 The word that the LORD spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by the hand of (put for the instrumentality or agency, especially in the inspiration of written words. See Zech. 7:12) Jeremiah the prophet.
2 "Declare you among the nations, and publish, and lift up a standard; publish, and conceal not (now not using symbols as in 25:15. Cp. 4:5,6; 46:14): say, 'Babylon is taken (cp. Rev. 14:8; 18:6,10,21: showing that this prophecy is still future), Bel (contracted from the Aramaic form of Ba'al, the national god of Babylon. See Isa. 46:4) is confounded, Merodach (another name bor Bel [= Baal], Babylon's god) is broken in pieces; her idols are confounded, her manufactured gods (cp. Lev. 26:30) are broken in pieces.
3 For out of the north (referring to Medo-Persia, which was on the north-west of Chaldea. But a future enemy is foretold) there comes up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell therein (showing that the fulfillment is still future): they shall remove, they shall depart, both man and beast.'
C1 E1 g 4. Repentance. h 5. Return. i 6,7. Sheep. Lost. D2 8-16. Babylon. C2 E2 i 17,18. Sheep. Scattered. h 19. Restoration. g 20. Pardon.
4 In those days (This prophecy awaits its fulfillment. The conquest by Medo-Persia did not exhaust it), and in that time, says the LORD, the sons of Israel shall come, they and the sons of Judah together (another proof that this prophecy refers to the future. Never yet fulfilled), weeping (for their past sins. Cp. 31:9,18. Joel 2:12. Zech. 12:10-14. Rev. 1:7) as they travel, so shall they journey on: they shall go, and seek the LORD their God.
5 They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces hither-ward (Jeremiah was therefore not in Babylon, but in Egypt.), saying, 'Come, and let us join ourselves to the LORD in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten.' (Another evidence that this prophecy refers to the future covenant. Cp. 3:16-4:2; 11:1-6; 31:31.)
6 My people has been lost sheep (cp. Matt. 10:6; 15:24): their shepherds (i.e. rulers) have caused them to go astray, on the mountains they seduced them (i.e. by the idolatrous worship practiced there): they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their resting-place.
7 All that found them have devoured them: and their adversaries said, 'We offend not, because they have sinned against the LORD, the pasturage of righteousness (in 31:23 this is applied to Jerusalem. Here Yehovah Himself is the pasturage in which His People find rest), even the LORD, the hope of their fathers.' ("Hope' put for the God in Whom their fathers hoped. Cp. 1 Tim. 1:1)
8 Remove out of the midst of Babylon, and [they will] go forth (cp. 51:4,6. Rev. 18;4) out of the land of the Chaldeans, and be as the he goats before the flocks.
D2 F 8. Removal. G j 9,10. Invasion. k 11-13. Cause. G j 14,15-. Invasion. k -15. Cause. F 16. Flight.
9 For, lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly (a gathered host, or convocation) of great nations (cp. Isa. 13:3,4) from the north country: and they shall set themselves in array against her; from there she shall be taken: their arrows shall be as of a mighty successful man; none shall return in vain.
10 And Chaldea shall be a spoil: all that spoil her shall be satisfied (cp. 49:9), says the LORD.
11 Because you were glad, because you rejoiced, O you spoilers (or pluderers) of My heritage, because you are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls;
12 Your mother shall be sore confounded; she that bare you shall be ashamed: behold, the last of the nations shall be a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert.
13 Because of the wrath of the LORD it shall not be inhabited (not yet fulfilled. Cp. 1 Pet. 5:13), but it shall be wholly desolate: every one that goes by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues.
14 Put yourselves in array against Babylon round about: all you that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she has sinned against the LORD.
15 Shout against her round about: she has given her hand (the token of submission. Cp. Lam. 5:6. Ezek. 17:18): her foundations are fallen, her walls are thrown down:
for it is the vengeance of the LORD: take vengeance upon her; according as she has done, do to her.
16 Cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handles the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn every one to his people, and they shall flee every one to his own land.
17 Israel is a scattered sheep (now a united nation. See v.4.); the lions have driven him away: first the king of Assyria has devoured him; and last this Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has broken his bones."
18 Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; "Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the king of Assyria.
19 And I will bring Israel again to his habitation, and he shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied upon the hill country of Ephraim and Gilead.
20 In those days, and in that time, says the LORD, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them whom I reserve.
D3 l 21-27-. Invasion. m -27. Day of visitation. l 28-30. Invasion. m 31,32. Day of visitation.
21 Go up against the land of Merathaim (= double rebellion. So called here, because the empire was founded in a double rebellion. A symbolic name for Babylon, as Pekod is also [below] ans Shesach [25:26; 51:41]), even against it, and against the inhabitants of Pekod (= visitation, i.e. in judgment): waste and utterly devote to extermination after them, says the LORD, and do according to all that I have commanded you.
22 A sound of battle is in the land, and of great breaking down.
23 How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and broken! how is Babylon become a desolation among the nations!
24 I have laid a snare for you, and you are also taken, O Babylon, and you were not aware: you are found, and also caught, because you have striven against the LORD.
25 The LORD has opened His armory, and has brought forth the weapons of His indignation: for this is the work of the Lord GOD of hosts in the land of the Chaldeans.
26 Come against her from the farthest parts (or every quarter), open her storehouses: cast her up as heaps, and destroy her utterly: let nothing of her be left.
27 Slay all her bullocks; let them go down to the slaughter: woe to them!
for their day is come, the time of their visitation.
28 The voice of them that flee and escape out of the land of Babylon, to declare in Zion the vengeance of the LORD our God, the avenging of His temple.
29 Call together the archers against Babylon: all you that bend the bow, camp against it round about; let none thereof escape: recompense her according to her work (see Rev. 18:6); according to all that she has done, do to her: for she has been proud against the LORD, against the Holy One of Israel. (See Ps. 71:22.)
30 Therefore shall her young men fall in the streets, and all her men of war shall be cut off in that day, says the LORD.
31 Behold, I am against you, O you most proud, says the Lord GOD of hosts: for your day is come, the time that I will visit you.
32 And the most proud shall stumble and fall, and none shall raise him up: and I will kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour all round about him."
33 Thus says the LORD of hosts; "The sons of Israel and the sons of Judah were oppressed together: and all that took them captives held them fast; they refused to let them go.
34 Their Kinsman-Redeemer (see Isa. 60:16. Ex. 6:6) is strong; the LORD of hosts is His name: He shall thoroughly plead their cause, that He may give rest to the land, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon.
D4 n 50:33-38. Sword and drought. o 50:39:40. Depopulation. p 50:41-43. Invasion. Behold. p 50:44. Invasion. Behold. o 50:45,46. Desolation. n 51:1-4. Wind and winnowers.
35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, says the LORD, and upon the inhabitants of Babylon, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men.
36 A sword is upon the prates; and they shall be shown to be foolish: a sword is upon her mighty men; and they shall be dismayed.
37 A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, and upon all the rabble that are in the midst of her; and they shall become as women: a sword is upon her treasures; and they shall be robbed.
38 A drought is upon her waters; and they shall be dried up: for it is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their horrors.
39 Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wild beasts of the islands shall dwell there, and the owls shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever (therefore the fulfillment is yet future); neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation.
40 As God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbor cities thereof (see Gen. 19:25. Cp. 49:18), says the LORD; so shall no man abide there, neither shall any son of man dwell therein.
41 Behold, a people shall come from the north, and a great nation (i.e. Medo-Persia), and many kings shall be raised up from the sides of the earth. (I.e. remote parts.)
42 They shall hold the bow and the lance: they are cruel, and will not show mercy: their voice shall roar like the sea, and they shall ride upon horses, every one put in array, like a man to the battle, against you, O daughter of Babylon.
43 The king of Babylon has heard the report of them, and his hands waxed feeble (see Dan. 5:6): anguish took hold of him, and pangs as of a woman in travail.
44 Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan to the habitation of the strong: but I will make them suddenly run away from her: and who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over her? for who is like Me? and who will appoint Me the time? and who is that shepherd that will stand before Me? (See 49:19 for this verse and v.45, there spoken of Edom)
45 Therefore hear you the counsel of the LORD, that He has counseled against Babylon; and His purposes, that He has purposed against the land of the Chaldeans: Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out: surely He shall make their habitation desolate with them.
46 At the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth is moved, and the cry is heard among the nations."