44:1-14-. IDOLATRY. DECLARATION.
W  Y1  1,2. Infliction. Past. Yahaveh, &c.
    Z  w  3. Provocation. Incense.
        x  4. Remonstrance.
         y  5.  Disregard.
   Y2  6,7-. Infliction. Past. Yahaveh, &c.
    Z  w  -7,8. Provocation. Incense.
        x  9. Remonstrance.
         y  10. Disregard.
   Y3  11-14. Infliction. Future.

The 39th Prophecy of Jeremiah.

(This was Jeremiah's 39th and latest prophecy relating to Israel. Chs. 46-51 relate to the Gentiles.)

477 B.C.

Jeremiah 44)

1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the house of Judah which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol (see Ex. 14:2), and at Tahpanhes (see 43:7), and at Noph (a contraction of the Egyptian Manufr = the abode of the good. Heb. Moph in Hos. 9:6; afterward = Memphis; now Abu Sir. Cp. 2:16; 49:14,19), and in the country of Pathros (a part of upper Egypt, south of Memphis. Cp. Isa. 11:11. Ezek. 29:14; 30:14), saying,

Longer note on Chs. 42-44.

"The house of Judah which dwell in the land of Egypt".

  As the end of the kingdom of Judah drew near, many of Judah were determined to go into Egypt; and this in spite of the warning given by Yahaveh through Jeremiah.

  In Jer. 44 we have the latest prophecy concerning those who had gone there; which declared that they should not escape, but should be consumed there [44:27,&c.]. This prophecy must have been fulfilled concerning that generation; but the successors, or others that subsequently followed, continued there a little longer, until the time came for Egypt itself to fall into the hands of Babylon.

  Recent discoveries of Papyri in the ruins of Elephantine [an island in the Nile, opposite Assouan], dating from the 5th century B.C., bear witness to 2 great facts:-
   1) That some of Judah were dwelling there [in 424-505 B.C.]
   2) That they were observing the Feast of Passover, "as it is written in the law of Moses".

  The importance of these Papyri lies in the fact that modern critics confidently assert ans assume that the greater part of the Pentateuch was not written till after the Exile; and even then neither collectively as a whole, nor separately in its distinctive books.

  In the References to the Pentateuch in the Prophets. it is shown through all the prophets [who lived at the time of the kings in whose reigns they prophesied] there is a constant reference to the books of the Pentateuch, which conclusively proves that their contents were well known both to the prophets themselves and those whom they addressed.

  The Pentateuch, being full of legal expressions, technical ceremonial terms, and distinctive phraseology, affords abundant evidence of the above fact, and makes it easy to call continuous attention to in in the notes of the Companion Bible.

  But there is further evidence found in the Papyri now discovered in the ruins at Elephantine in Upper Egypt.   There is a list preserved, registering the contributions towards the upkeep of the temple [containing the names of the many ladies].

  But the most interesting and important of these Papyri is one dated in the year 419 B.C., which is a Passover "announcement" of the approaching feast, such as were made from the earliest times to the present day [see Neh. 8:15], containing a brief epitome of its laws and requirements. This particular announcement shows that the following passages were well known: Ex. 12:16. Lev. 23:7,8. Num. 9:1-14. Deut. 16:6.

  Nearly 2,400 years, since this announcement of Passover to a remnant of Judah in Egypt, have gone by. Elephantine is now a heap of ruins. The colony of Judah has passed away [unless the "Falashas" of Abyssinia are their descendants], but the nation of Judah still exists, and continues to keep Passover, a standing witness to their truth of holy Scriptures.

2 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; 'You have seen all the calamity that I have brought upon Jerusalem, and upon all the cities of Judah; and, behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwells therein,

3 Because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke Me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, and to serve other gods (cp. Deut. 13:6; 32:17), whom they knew not, neither they, you, nor your fathers.

4 Howbeit I sent to you all My servants the prophets, rising early and sending them (see 7:13), saying, 'Oh, do not this abominable thing that I hate.'

5 But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear to turn from their wickedness, to burn no incense to other gods.

6 Wherefore My fury and My anger was poured forth, and was kindled in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem; and they are wasted and desolate, as at this day.
7 Therefore now thus says the LORD, the God of hosts, the God of Israel; (See 35:17.)

Wherefore commit you this great evil against your souls, to cut off from you man and woman, little one and suckling, out of the midst of Judah, to leave you none to remain;
8 In that you provoke Me to wrath with the works of your hands, burning incense to other gods in the land of Egypt, where you come to sojourn, that you might cut yourselves off, and that you might be a curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth?

9 Have you forgotten the wicked ways of your fathers, and the wicked ways of the kings of Judah, and the wicked ways of their wives, and your own wicked ways, and the wicked ways of your wives, which they have committed in the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem? (Used for great emphasis.)

10 They are not contrite even to this day, neither have they feared, nor walked in My law, nor in My statutes, that I set before you and before your fathers.'

11 Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; 'Behold, I will set My face against you for calamity (cp. Lev. 17:10; 20:3,5,6), and to cut off all Judah.
12 And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the sword and by the famine (cp. Lev. 26:6,25,33,36. Deut. 28:22. Cp. 42:22): they shall die, from the least even to the greatest, by the sword and by the famine: and they shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach.
13 For I will punish them that dwell in the land of Egypt, according as I have punished Jerusalem, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence:
14 So that none of the remnant of Judah, which are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that they should return into the land of Judah, to the which they lift up their soul to return to dwell there:

for none shall return but such as shall escape.' "

44:15-27. IDOLATRY. DISCUSSION.
W  a  15-17-. Answer of the People.
    b  -17-19. Reason.
   a  20-25. Answer. Jeremiah's reply.
    b  26,27. Reason.

15 Then all the men which knew that their wives had burned incense to other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great assembly, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying,
16 "As for the word that you have spoken to us in the name of the LORD, we will not hearken to you.
17 But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goes forth out of our own mouth, to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem:

for then had we plenty of victuals (put for all kinds of food), and were well, and saw no evil.
18 But since we left off to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine.
19 And when we burned incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink offerings to her, did we make her cakes to worship her, and pour out drink offerings unto her, without our men?"

20 Then Jeremiah said to all the people, to the men, and to the women, and to all the people which had given him that answer, saying,
21 "The incense that you burned in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, you, and your fathers, your kings, and your princes, and the people of the land, did not the LORD remember them (i.e. your fathers), and came it not into His mind?
22 So that the LORD could no longer forbear, because of the evil of your doings, and because of the abominations which you have committed; therefore is your land a desolation, and an astonishment, and a curse, without an inhabitant, as at this day.
23 Because you have burned incense, and because you have sinned against the LORD, and have not obeyed the voice of the LORD, nor walked in His law, nor in His statutes, nor in His testimonies; therefore this evil is happened to you, as at this day."
24 Moreover Jeremiah said to all the people, and to all the women, "Hear the word of the LORD, all Judah that are in the land of Egypt:
25 Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying; 'You and your wives have both spoken with your mouths, and fulfilled with your hand, saying, 'We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto her:' you will surely accomplish your vows, and surely perform your vows.'

26 Therefore hear you the word of the LORD, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt; Behold, I have sworn by my great name (cp. Gen. 22:16), says the LORD, that My name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, 'The Lord GOD (Adonai Yahaveh) lives.'
27 Behold, I will watch over them for calamity, and not for good: and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them.

28 Yet a small number that escape the sword shall return out of the land of Egypt into the land of Judah, and all the remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose words shall stand, mine, or their's. (so that the king's daughters either returned to Judah or remained in Egypt)

29 And this shall be a sign to you, says the LORD, that I will punish you in this place, that you may know that my words shall surely stand against you for calamity:'

30 Thus says the LORD; 'Behold, I will give Pharaohhophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life (not Nebuchadnezzar; but, as the monuments now tell us, the soldiers who revolted against Hophra. He was delivered into their hands, as Zedekiah had already been delivered into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar); according as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that sought his soul.' "

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