X n 1,2. Time of the prophecy. o 3,4. Messengers from Yehovah. p 5-7. Disobedience. The cause. p 8. Disobedience. The consequence. o 9-11-. Messengers from Babylon. n -11. Duration of the prophecy.
1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning the People at large of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim (an important date, being the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar) the son of Josiah king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar (cp. 21:2) king of Babylon; (Assyria not mentioned, for it had already fallen.)
2 The which Jeremiah the prophet spoke to People at large of Judah (in ch. 38:he is told to "write", because "Israel" [being dispersed], could not be spoken to, as Judah was here), and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying,
518 or 496 B.C.
3 From the thirteenth year of Josiah (cp. 1:2) the son of Amon king of Judah, even to this day, that is the twenty-third year (i.e. of Jeremiah's prophesying: 18 years under Josiah + 3 months under Jehoahaz + 4 years under Jehoiahim), the word of the LORD has come to me, and I have spoken to you, rising early and speaking (see 7:13); but you have not hearkened.
4 And the LORD has sent to you all his servants the prophets, rising early and sending them; but you have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear.
5 They said, 'Turn you again now every one from his calamity, and from the calamity of your doings, and dwell on the soil that the LORD has given to you and to your fathers from age to age: (This must be read with "given", and refers to God's counsel.)
6 And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will bring no calamity upon you.'
7 Yet you have not hearkened to me, says the LORD; that you might provoke Me to anger with the works of your hands to your own hurt. (see Deut. 32:21)
8 Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts; Because you have not heard My words,
9 Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, says the LORD, and Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, my servant (cp. Isa. 45:1), and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment (see Deut. 28:37. Cp. v.18; 24:9), and an hissing, and age-abiding (put for a long time) desolations.
10 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp. (Quoted in Rev. 18:23. Cp. 7:34; 16:9; 33:11.)
11 And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment;
and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. (From 496 to 426 B.C. See note at the end of 2 Chron.)
Y q 12-14. Literal. r 15-29. Symbol. The Cup. q 30-33. Literal. r 34-38. Symbols. Shepherds and folds.
12 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will visit upon the king of Babylon (exactly 70 years later), and that nation, says the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it (the People rather than the land) perpetual desolations.
13 And I will bring upon that land all my words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah has prophesied against all the nations.
14 For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also (i.e. of the Chaldeans): and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands.
15 For thus says the LORD God of Israel to me; 'Take the wine cup of this fury at My hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send you, to drink it.
16 And they shall drink, and reel to and fro, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them.' (See Lev. 26:25,33.)
17 Then took I the cup at the LORD'S hand, and made all the nations to drink, to whom the LORD had sent me:
18 To wit, Jerusalem (comes 1st [cp. v.29], because of 1 Pet. 4:17 Amos 3:2), and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, an hissing, and a curse; as it is this day;
19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people;
20 And all the mingled people (cp. 50:37. Ezek. 30:5. Dan. 2;43. Ezra 9:2. Ps. 106:35. In this inscription of Sennacherib the Urbi are joined with the Arameans [nomad tribes west of the Euphrates]. Sennacherib says that Hezekiah had some "Urbi" soldiers with him in Jerusalem), and all the kings of the land of Uz (Job's country near Idumea [Lam. 4:21]), and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon (now 'Askalan), and Azzah (Heb. = Gaza. Now Guzzeh), and Ekron (now 'Akir), and the remnant of Ashdod (now 'Esdud), (Cp. ch. 47.)
21 Edom, and Moab, and the sons of Ammon,
22 And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the coast-lands (or maritime country) which is beyond the sea, (Referring to coast-land.)
23 Dedan (on the borders of Edom [49:8. Ezek. 25:13]), and Tema, and Buz (the country of Elihu. See Job 32:2), and all with their hair clipped at the corners,
24 And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert,
25 And all the kings of Zimri (etymology uncertain. Perhaps the country of Zimran, a son of Abraham by Keturah [Gen. 25:2]), and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes,
26 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the earth, which are upon the face of the ground: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them. (= "Babel", being a cipher by which the last letter of the alphabet is put for the 1st, and the next to the last for the 2nd, &c., by which Sh.Sh.Ch. becomes B.B.L. "Babel" [cp. 51:41, where both words are used]. There is another example in 51:1. 4 classes of nations are to drink of this cup of the fury of Yehovah Elohim of Israel [v.15]: 1) Jerusalem and Judah [v.18]; 2) Egypt, &c. [v.19]; 3) the mingled nations [vv. 20-22]; 4) the more distinct nations [vv.23-25]. Daniel fills in these "times of the Gentiles", which are not within the scope of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. But the point here is that the final judgment of the nations is yet future: when "Great Babylon" comes into remembrance, it will "drink after them". Cp. 49:12. For this, "Sheshach" must be rebuilt and restored.)
27 Therefore you shall say to them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; 'Drink you, and be drunken, and spew, and fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I will send among you.' "
28 And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at your hand to drink, then shall you say to them, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts; You shall certainly drink.
29 For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city upon which My called, and should you be utterly held guiltless? You shall not be held guiltless: for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, says the LORD of hosts.' '
30 Therefore prophesy you against them all these words, and say to them, 'The LORD shall roar (cp. v.38, "as a lion") from on high, and utter His voice from His holy habitation; He shall mightily roar against His fold; He shall give a shout, as they that tread the wine-press (cp. Isa. 63:1-6), against all the inhabitants of the earth.
31 A noise shall come even to the ends of the earth; for the LORD has a controversy with the nations, He will judge all flesh; He will give them that are lawless to the sword, says the LORD.'
32 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, 'Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the sides (i.e. uttermost parts) of the earth.
33 And the slain (by the sword. Cp. Isa. 66:16) of the LORD shall be at that day from one end of the earth even to the other end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be dung upon the ground.
34 Howl, you rulers (of all hind. Cp. 2:8; 6:3. All 3 had miserable ends: Jehoiakim [26:18; 36:30]; Jehoiachin, taken to Babylon; and Zedekiah, after his eyes were put out), and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, you strong ones of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and you shall fall like a precious (i.e. fair, but fragile) vessel.
35 And the rulers shall have no way to flee, nor the strong men of the flock to escape.
36 A voice of the cry of the rulers, and an howling of the strong men of the flock, shall be heard: for the LORD has spoiled their pasture.
37 And the pastures of peace are cut down because of the fierce anger of the LORD.
38 He has forsaken His covert, as the lion (cp. v.30): for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of His fierce anger.' "