631-630 B.C.

Isaiah )

1 For (this member [9:1-7] relates to Messiah, the Son, referring back to 8:9,10; and carries 7:14 on to its future fulfillment) the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation (almost the same words as dimness...anguish [8:22]), when at the first (when Ben-hadad, in the reign of Baasha, "smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali" [1 Kings 15:20]) He lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun (quoted in Luke 1:79) and the land of Naphtali, and afterward (referring to the heavier scourge when Hazael "smote all the coasts of Israel from Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead" [2 Kings 10:32,33]. This land was the first to be afflicted by the armies of Assyria [2 Kings 15:29], and was the first to see the promised Light in the person of Messiah) did more grievously afflict her by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations.
2 The people the walkers in darkness saw a great Light (quoted in Matt. 4:14-16): they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them has the Light shined.
3 You (i.e. Yahaveh) have (this is a figure by which the future is prophetically spoken of as present, or past) multiplied the nation, and not increased the joy (the difficulty is not removed by reading l, "to him", instead of l'o, "not" [which is the marginal reading of Heb. text, and is followed by the R.V.] Dr. C.D. Ginsburg suggests that the word in question, haggil'o, was wrongly divided into two words, and the last syllable [l'o] was treated as a separate word. Read as one word, the four lines form and Introversion, thus:

    z  You have multiplied the exultation,
     a  You have increased the joy:
     a  They joy before You according to the joy in harvest,
    z  And as men exult when they divide the spoil.
: they joy before You according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil.
4 For You have broken the yoke of his burden, and the rod of his shoulder (i.e. the rod that smites the shoulder), the scepter of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian (refers to Judg. 7:21, &c).
5 For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.
6 For unto us a Child is born (the prophecy of the "Divine Interposition" ends with Messiah, even as it began in 7:14 [quoted in Luke 2:11]), unto us a Son is given (the interval of this present dispensation comes between the word "given" and the next clause): and the government shall be upon His shoulder (the Heb. word misrh occurs only in these verses [6,7]. Like politeuma [Phil. 3:20]): and He Himself (see Ps. 20:1) shall be called Wonderful (cp. Judg.13:18), Counselor, The mighty GOD (EL. As in 10:21), The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace (i.e. the Prince Who gives peace. Cp. Rom.15:16).
7 Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end (cp. the angelic message [Luke 1:32,33]), upon the throne of David, and upon His kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice (feminine, referring to the kingdom) from henceforth even for ever (quoted in Luke 1:32,33). The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. (see 1 Sam. 1:3)

9:8 - 10:32. Yahaveh's Confederacy.

C  M  9:8 - 10:4. Made with Israel's enemy (in judgment).
    M  10:5-32. Broken with enemies for Israel's deliverance (in grace).

9:8 - 10:4. Yahaveh's Covenant Made With Israel's Enemies.

M  N  b  9:8-10. Sin. Self-confidence.
         c  9:11,12-. Threatening.
          d  9:-12. Anger not turned away.
    N  b  9:13. Sin. Impenitence.
         c  9:14-17-. Threatening.
          d  9:-17. Anger not turned away.
    N  b  9:18-. Sin. Lawlessness.
         c  9:-18-21-. Threatening.
          d  9:-21. Anger no turned away.
    N4  b4  10:1,2. Sin. Haughtiness.
         c4  10:3,4-. Threatening.
          d4  10:-4. Anger not turned away.

8 The Lord sent a word (2:5,6, which had now been fulfilled. Cp. 5:25. 2 Chron.28:6-8) into Jacob (see 2:5), and it has fallen upon Israel.
9 And all the People shall know, even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in the pride and stoutness of heart,
10 The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones: the sycamores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars.

11 Therefore the Lord shall set up the adversaries (some codices read "princes, or generals") of Rezin against him (i.e. Ephraim [not Rezin]), and join his enemies together (= weave together, unite as allies);
12 The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind; and they shall devour Israel with open mouth.

For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out [in judgment] still (see 5:25).

13 For the people turned not to Him that smites them (see Deut. 4:29,30), neither do they seek the Lord of hosts Himself.

14 Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush (a marshy pool), in one day.
15 The ancient and honorable, he is the head; and the prophet that teaches lies, he is the tail (see Deut. 28:13,14).
16 For the leaders (or flatterers) of this People cause them to stray; and they that are flattered of them are swallowed up.
17 Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows: for every one is an hypocrite and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks folly.

For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.

18 For lawlessness burns as the fire:

it shall devour the briers and thorns, and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest, and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke.
19 Through the wrath of the Lord of Hosts is the land darkened, and the People shall be as the fuel for the fire: no man shall spare his brother.
20 And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry; and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied (see Lev.26:26): they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm:
21 Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh: and they together shall be against Judah.

For all this His anger is not turned away, but is hand is stretched out still.

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