1 That which (cp. Mic. 4:1-3, written 17 years later) Isaiah the son of Amoz saw in a vision (see 1:1) concerning Judah and Jerusalem (the repetition of 1:1 shows that Chapter 1 is to be regarded as a summary Introduction to the whole Book).
2 And it shall come to pass in the last days (i.e. the days of Messiah, the Day of the Lord, the Millennium [1,000 years]), that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains (Ps.24:3. Cp. Ps. 68:15. See Ezek. 28:16), and shall be exalted above the hills; and many from all nations shall flow to it.
3 And many peoples shall go and say, “Come you all, and let us go up (the second verb must be supplied enter into) [and enter in]to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for out of Zion shall go forth law (see 1:10), and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.
4 And He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks (fig., put for all kinds of weapons; while plowshares and pruning-hooks put by the same fig., for all implements of peace. The signs are Figures, but the things signified are literal.Cp. Ps. 72:7. Jer. 23:6. Zech. 9:10): and nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.
5 O house of Jacob, come you all, and let us walk in the light of the Lord.
C N c 6-9. The sin of Judah. d 10. Threatening. O e 11-. Abasement of man. Day of Yahaveh. f -11-16. Exhalation of Yahaveh. " O e 17-. Abasement of man. " f -17. Exhalation of Yahaveh. " N c 18. The sin of Judah. Idols abolished. d 19-22. Threatening.
6 Therefore (or, For) you have forsaken Your people the house of Jacob, because they be replenished (or, full of divinations) from the east (especially diviners and mediums from an evil spirit [an ob]. Cp. Lev. 19:31; 20:6. Deut. 18:11. 1 Sam.28:3-7; and below, 8:9; 19:3; 29:4, where ob occurs.), and are soothsayers (Lev. 19:26 [observe times]. Deut. 18:10,14 [observers of times]. Same word in all four cases. Heb. ‘ãnan) like the Philistines, and they join hands with the young children of unknown persons (i.e. foreigners).
7 Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end of their treasures; their land is also full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots:
8 Their land also is full of idols (= nothings. Lev.26:1. Deut. 17:14-19); they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made:
9 And the mean man bows down, and the great man humbles himself (contrasting society's extremes): therefore forgive them not.
10 Enter into the rock, and hide yourself in the dust, for dread of the Lord (cp. 2 Thess.1:9,10), and for the glory of His majesty.
11 The proud looks of mankind (fig., to impress us with the far-reaching object and effect of Yahaveh's dealings in "the Day of the Lord", recorded in vv.11-17. Heb. gâbah. Same word as "high" [v.15], and "loftiness" [v.17]. Not the same word as "lofty" [v.12]) shall be lowered (fig. in vv.11 and 17, Heb.shâphal. Same word as "brought low" [v.12], "made low" [v.17]. Heb. = each shall be, &c.), and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed low,
and alone shall be exalted in that day.
12 For the day of the Lord of hosts (this is the first of 20 occurrences. In the N.T. it occurs 4 times. Thus the expression is stamped with the number "four" [4= the number of things concerning the earth]; for "the day of the Lord" is the day when everything done will be to abase man and exalt Yahaveh. Now is "man's day" [1 Cor. 4:3], when man exalts himself, and bows God out of the world He has created) shall be upon every one that is arrogant and haughty, and (fig., "many ands", emphasizing each of the details in vv.11-18) upon every one that is self-satisfied; and he shall be brought low:
13 And upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan,
14 And upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up,
15 And upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall,
16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish (see 23:1,14; 60:9. See also 1 Kings 10:22), and upon all desirable pictures.
17 And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low:
and Yehovah alone shall be exalted in that day.
18 And the idols He shall utterly abolish.
19 And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for dead of Yehovah, and for the glory of His majesty, when He arises to shake terribly the earth (cp. v.21).
20 In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats;
21 To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the fissures (or crevices) of the ragged rocks, for dread of the Lord, and for the glory of His majesty, when He arises to shake terribly the earth.
22 Let go from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be reckoned on ? (cp. Ps. 146:3,4. Jer. 17:5)