B1  A  1:1. Introduction.
     B  1:2-3:5. Symbolical.
     B  4:1-14:8. Literal.
    A  14:9. Conclusion.

The Canonical order of the prophets.

  Hosea was a prophet to the 10 Tribes [or Northern Kingdom], but he had warnings for Judah also, as well as promises of future blessings.

  His prophecy is dated as being in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, King of Israel [1:1].

  The period covered must have about 72 years: for Jeroboam II ended in 687 B.C., in the 14th of Uzziah; Uzziah died in 649 B.C., a period of 38 years. If we assume that Hosea prophesied during the last 2 or 3 years of Jeroboam, we have, then, say 2 years; Uzziah, 38 years; Jotham, 16 years [647-631 B.C.]; Ahaz, 16 years [632-616 B.C.], a period of 72 years to be commenced of Hezekiah [689-617 B.C.]. See notes on 2 Kings 16:6; 17:13.

  The book of Hosea points to the events immediately preceeding the fall of Samaria [the capital of the 10 Tribes], which took place in the 6th year of Hezzekiah; and the last statement, in 13:16, is a terrible prophecy of Samaria's end. This took place in 611 B.C., and Hosea's latest date would therefore be 613 B.C., if 13:16 were, say, 2 years before Samaria's fall in 611 B.C.

  This gives us, for the whole period covered by Hosea's prophecy, some 66 or 68 years [from 689-611 B.C.].   If Hosea were, say, 20 when he received his mission, he would be 98 years of age at the destruction of the Northern Kingdom, which ended his prophesying - and probably his life too [cp. Eli, 1 Sam. 4:15].

  Hosea is quoted in the New Testament, in Matt. 2:15; 9:13; 12:7. Rom. 9:25,26. 1 Cor. 15:55. 1 Pet. 2:5,10.


= Salvation. It basically is written to the 10 Northern tribes. God's way, or plan, of bringing salvation to all His Children, including all nations. Tells you what a saved person should be doing. Father in many cases uses very graphic examples whereby you can understand how He feels about His children when they are unfaithful.

689-611 B.C.
Hosea 1)

1 The word of the LORD (Yahaveh) that came to Hosea, the son of Beeri (Jewish tradition identifies Be'eri with Be'erah, of Reuben [1 Chron. 5:6]. Christian tradition makes Hosea of Issachar. Both names are symbolical, like the other names in this book. This clause not "evidently inserted by a latter hand", as alledged), in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam (i.e. Jeroboam II, the last king but one of the house of Jehu. See 2 Kings 10:30; 14:23-29. This carries us back to the first 14 years of Uzziah's long reign) the son of Joash, king of Israel.

1:1-3:5. SYMBOLICAL.
B  A  C  a  1:2- Symbol. The 1st Wife. "Go,take."
          b  1:-2. Signification. The Land departs from Yahaveh.
           c  1:3. The Prophet takes Gomer.
            D  E  1:4-9. The Former State.
                F  1:10,11. The Latter State.
                 B  2:1-4. Samaria. Remonstrance.
                 B  2:5-23. Samaria. Reasons.
   A  C  a  3:1-. Symbol. The 2nd Wife. "Go yet, love", &c.
          b  3:-1. Signification. Israel looks to other gods.
           c  3:2,3. The Prophet takes a Woman.
            D  E  3:4. The Present State.
                F  3:5. The Future State.

2 The beginning of the word of the LORD by Hosea (this may be understood not merely of Hosea's prophecies, but as referring to the fact that Hosea was the 1st [canonically] of 15 prophets included in the Hebrew canon.). And the LORD said to Hosea, "Go, take to you a wife of idolatries (i.e. a woman of the northern kingdom, and therefore regarded as an idolatress. The one term is used for the other by a fig. of speech, because both are characterized by by unfaithfulness; the former to a husband, and the later to Yehovah, Who sustained that relation to Israel [Jer. 31:32]. Cp. 2 King 9:22. 2 Chron. 21:13. Jer. 3:2. Ezek. 16:17-35; 20;30; 23:3,7,45. Nah. 3:4. See 4:2,12; 5:3,4; 6:10; 7:4,&c.) and begat offspring of idolatries (the mother is symbolical of the kingdom, and the offspring of the people):

for the earth (put for the land of Israel) has committed great idolatry, departing from after the LORD."

3 So he went and took Gomer (= completion [i.e. the filling up the measure of idolatry) the daughter of Diblaim (= a double cake of figs, symbolical of sensual pleasure. See Jer. 24 - fig tree); which conceived, and bare him a son.

E  G1  4-. Symbol. Son's name ["Jezreel"].
    H1  -4,5. Signification, and Reason.
   G2  6-. Symbol. Daughter's name [Lo-Ruhamah].
    H2  -6,7. Signification, and Reason.
   G3  8,9-. Symbol. Son's name Lo-Ammi].
    H3  -9. Signification, and Reason.

4 And the LORD said to him, Call his name Jezreel (= may God scatter [Jer. 31:10], or may God sew [Zech. 10:9], a play on the name Israel. Do you know where the house of Israel is? Called Caucasians - Isaac's sons, Saxons. The name is prophetic of coming judgment [see v.5] and future mercy. These bind up the 2 prophetic announcements. Jezreel, the fruitful land, had been defiled with blood [2 Kings 9:16,25,33; 10:11,14], and Israel shall be scattered, and sown among the nations; but, when God's counsels are ripe, Israel shall be resown in their own land [see 2:22,23);

for yet a little while (see fulfillment in 10:14), and I hall have visited the blood-guiltiness of Jezreel (here, it is used of the valley where the blood was shed) upon the house of Jehu (Jehu had carried out the judgment of God on the house of Ahab, because it accorded with his own will; but he was guilty of murder, because it was not executed purely according to the will of God. He would have disobeyed if it had not served his own interest. This is seen from the fact that he practiced Jeroboam's idolatries, for which Ahab had been judged. See 2 Kings 10;15,16), and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel. (This was fulfilled in 611 B.C. See 2 Kings 18:11.)
5 And it shall come to pass at that day (i.e. the day of 2 Kings 18:11), that I will break the bow of Israel (put for the armies of Israel), in the valley of Jezreel."

6 And she conceived again, and bare a daughter. And the Lord God said to him, "Call her name Lo-ruhamah (= not loved, not compasionated. Rendered "not beloved" in Rom. 9:25, and "not having obtained mercy" in 1 Pet. 2:10. These latter are the Holy Spirit's Divine interpretation of His own prophecy. He's going to fall out of favor with the people):

for I will no more have mercy upon the house of Israel; but I will utterly take away [the kingdom which belongs] to them. (He's fed up. He doesn't say He was going to destroy the people, but only take their name away. They wont know who they are. Do you know where you're ancestors came from?)
7 But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah (v.7 is not an 'interpretation', but is a definite and distinctive contrast with the prophecy concerning Israel), and will save them by the LORD their God (= by Yehovah their Elohim: i.e. the Messiah, or the Angel of Yehovah. See 2 Kings 19:35. But it looks forward to the future fulfillment, which will exhaust the prophecy in the destruction of Antichrist [Isa. 11:4. 2 Thess. 2:8,&c.]), and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen."

8 Now when she had weaned Lo-ruhamah (= not my people), she conceived, and bare a son.
9 Then said God, "Call his name Loammi: (Intends to be a change.)

for you are not My people, and I am not "I am" to you. (He is miffed.)

F  J1  10. Israel.
   J2  11. Judah.

10 Yet the number of the sons of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea (where are they? they are scattered throughout the world! See Gen. 22:17; 32:13), which cannot be measured nor numbered (see Num. 23:10); and it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said to them, 'No People of Mine are you,' (quoted in Rom. 9:25, not of the Gentiles, but as an illustration of what may be true in their case as it will be in Israel's. In 1 Pet. 2:10 the address is to the Dispora: i.e. the 'scattered strangers' of Israel, who are now afar off. Cp. Dan. 9:7. Acts 2:32) there it shall be said to them, 'You are the sons of the living God.' (Always used in contrast with false gods, which have no life. Cp. 1 Thess. 1:9,&.)

11 Then shall the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel be gathered out (see Isa. 11:12,13. Jer. 3:18. Ezek. 37:16-24), and appoint themselves one head (Zerubbabel was only a typical anticipation, for under him only Judah returned. This refers to a future reunion [Jer. 23:5,6. Ezek. 34:23), and they shall come up out of the land [of their dispersion]: for great shall be the day of Jezreel. (Here it is used in the sense: "God will sow". See v.4; and cp. 2:23. Referring to the day of Israel's restoration as being 'life from the dead' [Rom. 11:15]. Cp. Jer. 24:6; 31:28; 32:41. Amos 9:15. There will be a wedding taking place. Make sure you're still a virgin bride [spiritually]. See 2 Cor. 11:1-3.)

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