C Eč 39:1-40:23. His humiliation. EČ 41:1-57. His exaltation.
Eč c 39:1,2. In Potiphar's house. d 39:3-6-. Confidence of Potiphar. e 39:-6-18. Chastity of Joseph. c 39:19,20. In Prison. d 39:21-23. Confidence of Jailor. e 40:1-23. Wisdom of Joseph.1727 B.C. Genesis 39)
1 And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar (see 37:36), an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian (this is emphasized 3 times-vv. 1,2,5 because recent discoveries show that Egypt was at this time under a new dynasty: and emphasis is put on the fact that Potiphar, though an "Egyptian", was retained in high position), bought him of the hands of the Ishmaelites (see 37:25), which had brought him down to that place.
2 And the Lord (Yehovah) was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous
man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.
3 And his master saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper in his hand.
4 And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him (= became his personal servant): and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand. (Hand put for care which it takes)
5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the Lord blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the Lord was upon all that he had in the house (= at home or abroad), and in the field.
6 And Potiphar left (a homonym, the other meaning "to help") all that he had in Joseph's hand; and Potiphar knew (knowing put for caring for) not anything he had, save the bread which he did eat. (He knew and cared for that, as the Egyptians might not eat with Hebrews-43:32)
e f -6,7. Potiphar's wife. Request. g 8-10. Joseph's Refusal, and Reason. f 11,12-. Potiphar's wife. Request repeated. g -12-20. Joseph's flight, and consequences.
And Joseph came to be goodly person, and well favored. (Exactly what is said of his mother-29:17)
7 And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph (Egyptian women were not secluded as the Syrian women were, this is shown by Egyptian paintings of the period); and she said, "Lie with me."
8 But he refused (Joseph, now reckoned the firstborn-1 Chron. 5:2: thus by this chastity shames the unchastity of Rueben the firstborn before), and said to his master's wife, "Behold, my master knows not what is with me in the house, and he has committed all that he has to my hand (= care);
9 There is none greater in this house than I; neither has he kept back any thing from me but you, because you are his wife: how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?"
10 And it came to pass, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, that he listened not to her, to lie by her, or to be with her.
11 And it came to pass about this time, that Joseph went into the house to do his business (Pictures of an Egyptian house are extant which show the store-room at the back of the house); and there was none of the men of the house there within.
12 And she caught him by his garment (cp. 37:31,32. That to cover the sin of his brethren; this to cover the sin of Potiphar's wife), saying, "Lie with me:"
and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out.
13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth,
14 That she called to the men of her house, and spoke to them, saying, "See, he has brought in an Hebrew to us to mock us; he came in to me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice:
15 And it came to pass, when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled, and got him out."
16 And she laid up his garment by her, until his lord came home.
17 And she spoke to him according to these words, saying, "The Hebrew servant, which you have brought to us, came in to me to mock me:
18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out."
19 And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, "After this manner did your servant to me;" that his wrath was kindled.
20 And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison (= the house of the fortress), a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the house of the fortress.
21 But the Lord was with Joseph, and shewed him mercy, and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the the house of the fortress.
22 And the governor of the house of the fortress committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the house of the fortress; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it.
23 The governor of the house of the fortress looked not to any thing that was under his hand; because the Lord was with him, and that which he did, the Lord made it to prosper.