K² O 28:1. Aaron and sons (Denomination). P d 28:2-5. Garments (General). e 28:6-38. Garments (Aaron's). P d 28:39. Garments (General). e 28:40-43. Garments (Aaron's sons). O 29:1-46. Aaron and his sons (Consecration).
1 And bring near to you Aaron your brother (5 persons named here, #5 = grace), and his sons with him, from among (= from the midst of, cp. Deut. 18:15,18 [Prophet]) the sons of Israel, that he may minister to Me in the priest's office (this was the one object here; and the same when Christ was transfigured, and so consecrated for His office of Priest, see v.2), even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.
2 And you shall make holy garments (Heb. garments of holiness, emphasis on "holy", see 3:5) for Aaron your brother for glory and for beauty. (Sept. timê kai doxa, same as Heb.2:9 and 2 Pet.1:17. With which Christ was clothed and crowned for the same purpose when He was consecrated priest [Matt.17:1-8. Mark 9:1-10. Luke 9:28-36] "to minister to Me in the priest's office".)
3 And you shall speak to all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom (cp. 35:30-36:7), that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him (= install), that he may minister to Me in the priest's office.
4 And these are the garments which they shall make (in v.4 & 39, general); a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a embroidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, and his sons, that he may minister to Me in the priest's office.
5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.
e f 6-14. The Ephod and its girdle. g 15-30. The Breastplate. f 31-35. The Ephod and its robe. g 36-38. The Mitre-plate.
(Aaron's garments described first: There were in all 8: 1. the mitre, with its plate; 2. the breastplate; 3. the ephod; 4. the robe of the ephod; 5. the turban; 6. the girdle; 7. the drawers; 8. the coat. #8 is the Dominical number, or number of the Lord.)
6 And they shall make the ephod of gold (from Heb. 'aphad, to bind on, because it held the breastplate in its place. See v.28. Worn by Aaron the priest, Samuel the prophet, 1 Sam. 2:18, and David the king, 2 Sam. 6:14, Christ combining all 3 offices), of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with the work of a skillful weaver.
7 It shall have the two shoulder-pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.
8 And the curious (= embroidered) girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. (5 items, the number of grace.)
9 And you shall take two onyx stones (with 6 names on each: the names collectively, on the shoulders, the place of strength. The names on the breastplate, one on each stone, individually, on the heart, the place of love, vv.15-21), and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel: (Note the three engravings connected with the heart, v.9, the shoulder, v.21, and the head, v.36.)
10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth. (Here, on the shoulders, the place of strength, all were borne up alike; but over the heart, the place of love, the order was "according to the tribes" as God chose them, v.21.)
11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shall you engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel: you shall make them to be set in ouches (= sockets for precious stones) of gold.
12 And you shall put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial to the sons of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial.
13 And you shall make sockets for precious stones of gold;
14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shall you make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the sockets for precious stones.
15 And you shall make the breastplate of judgment (Genitive of relation, by which judgment is put for "giving judicial judgment", see v.30) with skillful work; after the work of the ephod you shall make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shall you make it.
16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span (about 10 1/2") shall be the breadth thereof.
17 And you shall set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones (3 in first row, 3x4 = 12 = governmental perfection, as 3 +4 = spiritual perfection): the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row.
18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.
19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
20 And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their enclosings.
21 And the stones shall be with the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to their names (according to the "twelve tribes" as God chose them. They were individual here, because over the heart, the place of love: one name on each stone), like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes. (Order not given here. In v.10 according to the order of birth. Here perhaps, according to Num. 2.)
22 And you shall make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold.
23 And you shall make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shall put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
24 And you shall put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.
25 And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains you shall fasten in the two sockets for the precious stones, and put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod before it.
26 And you shall make two rings of gold, and you shall put them upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is in the opposite side of the ephod inward.
27 And two other rings of gold you shall make, and shall put them on the two shoulders of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the embroidered girdle of the ephod.
28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof to the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the embroidered girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.
29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart (the place of love. See vv.9,10, and 21, and note the repetition of the word heart for emphasis), when he goes in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually.
30 And you shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goes in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually. (No command of God to make these. Only told to put [nathan, to give] them in the breastplate, i.e. into the bag of the breastplate [cp. v.26 and 16, also 39:9 and 19]. This bag was a doubled part, and the Urim and Thummim were probably two precious stones which were drawn out as a lot to give Yahaveh's judgment. "The lot is cast into the lap [Heb. bosom]; but the whole judgment thereof is Yahaveh" [Prov. 16:33]. Bosom here put for the clothing or covering over it [cp. Ex. 4:6,7. Ruth 4:16. Chek = bosom = any hollow thing, as of a chariot, 1 Kings 22:35]. The Heb. Urim and Thummim mean "lights" and "perfections". Probably these are the plurals of majesty, the sing. "light" [being put for that which is brought to light, i.e. guilt] and "perfection" [put for moral perfection, i.e. innocence]. Thus these two placed in the "bag", and one drawn out, would give the judicial decision [the name connected with the breastplate, cp. v.15 above], which would be "of Yahaveh". Hence, the breastplate itself was known as "the breastplate of judgment" [v.15], because, by that, Yahaveh's judgment was obtained whenever it was needed. Hence, when the land was divided "by lot" [Num. 26:55 &c.], Eleazar, the high priest, must be present [Num. 34:17, cp. 27:21. Josh. 17:4]. When he would decide the lot "came up" [Josh. 18:11]; "came forth" [Josh.19:1]; "came out" [Josh. 19:17]: i.e. "out", or "forth" from the bag of the ephod. In Ezra 2:61-63 & Neh.7:63-65, no judgment could be given unless the high priest was present with the breastplate, with its bag, with the lots of Urim and Thummim, which gave Yahaveh's decision, "guilty" or "innocent", "yes" or "no". The Heb. for lot is always gôrâl = a stone, except in Deut.32:9, 1 Chron. 16:18 and Ps. 105:11, where it is hêbel = a measuring line, put for the inheritance so measured. In Josh. 13:6; 23:4. Ezek. 45:1; 47:22; 48:29, it is naphal, to fall, put for the inheritance which falls to one from any cause. See all the passages where the Urim and Thummim are mentioned: Ex. 28:30. Lev. 8:8. Deut. 33:8. Num. 27:21. 1 Sam. 28:6. Ezra 2:63. Neh. 7:65, and cp. especially the notes on Num. 26:55, and 1 Sam. 14:41.)
31 And you shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
32 And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof (to enable the hand of the High Priest to be put into the bag to draw out the Urm or Thmmim. Cp. vv.16 & 26, also 39:9,19): it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon (= a coat of mail), that it be not rent.
33 And beneath upon the hem (= skirts) of it you shall make pomegranates (see Num. 13:23) of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about:
34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goes in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he comes out, that he die not.
36 And you shall make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD. (Here it was worn only on the forehead of the high priest; but in the Millennial days it will be worn even on the bells of the horses, Zech. 14:20,21. Cp. Rev. 19:11-14; 14:20.)
37 And you shall put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre (= tiara, or turban. Heb. miznepheth, from zanaph, to wind round); upon the forefront of the tiara it shall be.
38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear (=carry off, Lev. 10:17. Ps. 32:1. Isa. 33:24) the iniquity (=vanity) of the holy things, which the sons of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord. (Notice these words, Christ is our Representative, we are holy in Him, and this "always")
39 And you shall embroider the coat of fine linen, and you shall make the turban of fine linen, and you shall make the girdle of needlework. (The making deferred to ch.39. See v.3)
40 And for Aaron's sons you shall make coats, and you shall make for them girdles, and bonnets (= caps) shall you make for them, for glory and for beauty.
41 And you shall put them upon Aaron your brother, and his sons with him; and shall anoint them, and consecrate them (= install them. Heb. fill their hand, "hand" being put for the authority and official power given to them. Cp. Latin mandare), and sanctify them, that they may minister to Me in the priest's office.
42 And you shall make them linen breeches (priests were effendi [Lev. 6:10.1 Sam. 2:18; 22:18]. Prophets were fellahin, and were coarse clothing [2 Kings 1:8. Zech.13:4. Matt.3:4) to cover their nakedness; from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach:
43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tent of the congregation, or when they come near to the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not vanity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever to him and his seed after him.