l x 1-4. Prediction. y 5-9. Fulfillment. z 10-12. Israel troubled. a 13,14. Salvation promised. x 15-18. Prediction. y 19-23. Fulfillment. z 24,25. Egyptians troubled. a 26-31. Salvation realized.
1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
2 "Speak to the sons of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth (= the place were sledge grows, mouth of the gorges), between Migdol (the great fortress on the "Shur" or wall, built to protect Egypt from Asia. The present geography of the Eastern Delta does not, today, agree with the Biblical record. But its geography in the 19th dynasty is well known from papyri, and is in perfect accord with it, as given in Exodus) and the sea, over against Baal-zephon (= lord of the north): before it shall you all encamp by the sea.
3 For (the assault of the Enemy foreseen and provided against by Yahaveh) Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel, 'They are entangled in the land, the wilderness has shut them in.'
4 And I will (cp. Ps. 103:7 "His ways to Moses", and vv.13,14, "His acts to the sons of Israel") harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host (= force, put for army); that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord." And they did so.
5 And it was told (on the 4th day) the king of Egypt that the People fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the People, and they said, "Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?"
6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots (#600 is the number of war), and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
8 And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the sons of Israel: and the sons of Israel went out with an high hand.
9 But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army (Egypt was noted for chariots, horses, and cavalry, which had been introduced by the 18th dynasty), and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the sons of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the sons of Israel cried out to the Lord.
11 And they said to Moses, "Because there were no graves in Egypt, have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore have you dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell you in Egypt, saying, 'Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians?' For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness."
13 And Moses said to the People, "Fear you all not, stand still, and see (note importance of this command. Cp. "stand still and hear", Num. 9:8. 1 Sam.9:27; 12:7. 2 Chron. 20:17. Job 37:14) the salvation of the Lord, which He will show to you today: for the Egyptians whom you all have seen today, you all shall see them again no more for ever.
14 the Lord shall fight for you, and you all shall hold your peace."
15 And the Lord said to Moses, "Why do you cry to Me? (Fig.; for no mention has been made of Moses' crying to the Lord) speak to the sons of Israel, that they go forward: (This was Israel's faith. It was "by faith" in what they heard-Rom. 10:17. Heb. 11:29.)
16 But you lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide it: and the sons of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get Me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten Me honor upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen."
19 And the Angel of God (the Creator in relation to His creatures), which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a very dark cloud to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind (= ruach, the invisible manifestations of the Atmosphere) all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the sons of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch (from 3 a.m. till 6 a.m.) the Lord looked to the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled (= put in commotion) the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, "Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians."
26 And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen." (The flood in the end times will be Satan's lies, and then the flood of God's truth will consume him and all that follow him, i.e. Satan.)
April 10-11th 1491 B.C.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength (= irresistible might) when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them. (This implies that Pharaoh himself did not escape. Cp. 15:9,10. Ps. 106:11; 136:15. His body may have been washed up on the shore cp. v.30, and "also" in 15:4)
29 But the sons of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.
April 11-12th. a Sabbath.
30 Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians: and the People revered the Lord, and believed the Lord, and his servant Moses. (First occ. See the five Ex. 14:31. Josh. 9:24; 11:15. 1 Kings 8:6. Ps. 105:26, and cp. Num. 12:7. Deut. 35:5. 1 Kings 8:53. Neh. 10:29).