A 1:1-2:10. THE BONDAGE OF ISRAEL BEGUN. B 2:11-14:31. FREEDOM EFFECTED. A 15:1-21. THE BONDAGE OF ISRAEL ENDED. B 15:22-40:38. FREEDOM USED.EXODUS. Greek, the way out, or going out. Heb. Ve'alleh shemoth = "These are the names". It is he Book of Redemption (Ex. 6:6; 15:13). Hence the work of redemption is called "Exodus" (Gr. Luke 9:31, "decease") and its types are types of Redemption. Yah, the name of the Redeemer, occurs first in Ex. 15:2, and in the Psalms, in the Exodus Book (Ps. 68:4)
The common chronology places the date of this event at 1491 B.C.
The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that of the 10 plagues. In the night in which, at midnight, the first-born were slain, Ex. 12:29, Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites, vv.31,32. They at once set forth from Rameses, vv.37,39, apparently during the night, v.42, but toward morning on the 15th day of the first month, Num. 33:3. They made 3 journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the purser and his army were destroyed.
A Ač 1:1-7. Israel's sons. Their increase. Bč 1:8-11. Pharaoh's policy. AČ 1:12. Israel's sons. Their increase. BČ 1:13-22. Pharaoh's policy. Ał 2:1-10. Israel's sons. The birth of Moses.
1 Now (the conj. "now" = "and", thus connecting Exodus closely with Genesis: Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy begin in the same way. Thus the Pentateuch is one Book.) these are the names of the children (= sons; and so throughout O.T.) of Israel (thus Redemption is connected with names., cp. 1:1-4 with 39:6,7,8-14. The name of the Redeemer is published throughout. He reveals His name-3:14,15; 6:3; 33:19; 34:5-7. Moses speaks to Pharaoh in His name-5:23. Pharaoh raised up to add glory to it-9:16. Law given in the name of Yahaveh-20:2. His name in the Angel-23:21. God knows Moses by his name-33:12,17. Bezaleel and Aholiab &c.-31:26; 35:30,34. Names of Israel's sons: 1:1-4; 28:9-12,15-21; 39:6,7,8-14), which came into Egypt (cp. Gen.46); every man and his household came with Jacob.
2 Reuben (the order is 6 sons of Leah, 1 of Rachel, 2 of Bilhah, and 2 of Zilphah. Note the introversion of these four), Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,
4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls (see Gen. 46:10, Deut.10:22, and Acts 7:14): for Joseph was in Egypt already.
6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that
generation. (Levi survived him about 23 years. Cp. Gen. 50:26, Ex. 6:16)
7 And (5 "ands" greatly emphasizing each particular. #5=the number of grace) the sons of Israel were fruitful (like as trees), and increased abundantly (swarmed as fishes), and multiplied (cp. Gen.1:28), and waxed exceeding mighty (repeated for emphasis); and the land was filled with them.
8 Now there arose (Heb. kûm, stood up. Always denotes a standing up in place of another whom he removed. See Dan. 2:31,39,44; 3:24) up a new king (a fresh dynasty) over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.
Of only one thing we are assured; that, when the real facts have been discovered, they will be confirmed and attested by "the Scriptures of Truth".
9 And he said to his people, "Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are more and mightier than we:
10 Come on, let us deal wisely (= diplomatically) with them (the wisdom of Egypt ended in Pharaoh having to bring up, educate, and prepare the very man who was to accomplish what he feared. Cp. Job 5:13. Prov. 19:21; 21:30. Ps. 33:10,11. Zoan was the capital of Egypt, and noted for wisdom. But cp. God's comment in Isa. 19:11,13 and Ps. 78:12,13); lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falls out any war, they join also to our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land."
11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens (Heb. sârei missim is Egyptian for chiefs or tribute, allotters and exactors of labor). And they built for Pharaoh treasure (= store, all known and named) cities, Pithom (so the Egyptian Pa-Tum, the abode of the god Tum = the Greek Heroopolis = city of the store houses) and Raamses. (said to be so called because built by Ramases II, but not certain)
12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they increasingly multiplied and grew. And they were grieved (= filled with alarm) because of the children of Israel.
13 And the Egyptians made the sons of Israel to serve with rigor (= crushingly):
14 And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was crushingly.
15 And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah (= brightness), and the name of the other Puah (= splendid):
16 And he said, "When you all do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools (= two stones, probably the stone bath in which the children were bathed); if it be a son, then you all shall kill him (this is another assault of Satan, to destroy the male children, and so prevent "the Seed of the woman" from coming into the world. See explanation at Gen.3:1. But God intervened by providing the Hebrew midwives, and preserving and preparing Moses): but if it be a daughter, then she shall live."
17 But the midwives feared God (Eth ha-'Elohim. Very emphatic for the true or triune God), and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive.
18 And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said to them, "Why have you all done this thing, and have saved the men children alive?"
19 And the midwives said to Pharaoh, "Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered before the midwives come in to them."
20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty.
21 And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them houses (= families, or progeny).
22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, "Every son that is born you all shall cast into the river, and every daughter you all shall save alive."