Exodus 28

1491 B.C.

(As you study the garments of Aaron, notice that there are eight items in all that the High priest was required to wear. These are the mitre with it's plate [the hat]; The breastplate with the stones representing each of the tribes of Israel; The ephod; The robe of the ephod; The turban; the girdle; the drawers; and the coat of the priest. Eight is the Dominical number of the Lord. Jesus Christ will be crowned and clothed in the same manner, for the same purpose when He is to minister unto God, in the priest's office. This ephod will be warn over time by not only Aaron the Highpriest, but Samuel the prophet, from I Samuel 2:18, and also David as king of all Israel in 2 Samuel 6:14. Each of the names on the breastplate, one on each stone individually are over the heart, the place of love for Israel. So as we read down through this chapter, we are observing God's go between, The High priest, the only man standing between Him and His people.)

The Consecration of the Priests. 1. Aaron and sons (Denomination).

2-5. Garments (General).
6-38. Garments (Aaron's).
39. Garments (General).
40-43. Garments (Aaron's sons).

Exodus 28:1 And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto Me in the priest's office,

(This was the one object here; and the same when Christ was transfigured, and so consecrated for His office of Priest, see v.2. 5 persons named here, #5 = grace)

even Aaron, with Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.

2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for beauty.

(With which Christ was clothed and crowned for the same purpose when He was consecrated priest [Matt.17:1-8. Mark 9:1-10. Luke 9:28-36] "to minister to Me in the priest's office".)

3 And thou shalt speak unto all who are wisehearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest's office.

4 And these are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate and an ephod, and a robe and an embroidered coat, a miter and a girdle; and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother and his sons, that he may minister unto Me in the priest's office.

The Garments of Aaron. 6-14. The Ephod and its girdle.
15-30. The Breastplate.
31-35. The Ephod and its robe.
36-38. The Mitre-plate.

(Aaron's garments described first: There were in all 8: 1. the mitre, with its plate; 2. the breastplate; 3. the ephod; 4. the robe of the ephod; 5. the turban; 6. the girdle; 7. the drawers; 8. the coat. #8 is the Dominical number, or number of the Lord.)

5 And they shall take gold and blue and purple and scarlet, and fine linen;

6 And they shall make the ephod

(From Heb. 'aphad, to bind on, because it held the breastplate in its place. See v.28. Worn by Aaron the priest, Samuel the prophet, 1 Sam. 2:18, and David the king, 2 Sam. 6:14, Christ combining all 3 offices.)

of gold, of blue and of purple, of scarlet and finetwined linen, with skillful work.

7 It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof, and so it shall be joined together.

8 And the embroidered girdle of the ephod which is upon it shall be of the same, according to the work thereof: even of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet and finetwined linen.

(5 items, the number of grace.)

9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the children of Israel:

(With 6 names on each: the names collectively, on the shoulders, the place of strength. The names on the breastplate, one on each stone, individually, on the heart, the place of love, vv.15-21. Note the three engravings connected with the heart, v.9, the shoulder, v.21, and the head, v.36.)

10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.

(Here, on the shoulders, the place of strength, all were borne up alike; but over the heart, the place of love, the order was "according to the tribes" as God chose them, v.21.)

11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel. Thou shalt make them to be set in clasps of gold.

(These clasps hold precious stones.)

12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of theephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel; and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial.

13 And thou shalt make clasps of gold,

14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathed work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathed chains to the clasps.

15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with skillful work; according to the work of the ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blue and of purple, and of scarlet and of finetwined linen shalt thou make it.

16 Foursquare it shall be, and doubled: a span shall be the length thereof and a span shall be the breadth thereof.

17 And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle; this shall be the first row.

(3 in first row, 3x4 = 12 = governmental perfection, as 3 +4 = spiritual perfection.)

18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond;

19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst;

20 And the fourth row a beryl and an onyx and a jasper. They shall be set in gold in their enclosings.

21 And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve according to their names,

(According to the "twelve tribes" as God chose them. They were individual here, because over the heart, the place of love: one name on each stone.)

like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.

(Order not given here. In v.10 according to the order of birth. Here perhaps, according to Num. 2.)

22 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends, of wreathed work of pure gold.

23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.

24 And thou shalt put the two wreathed chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.

25 And the other two ends of the two wreathed chains thou shalt fasten in the two clasps, and put them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front of it.

26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is on the inner side of the ephod.

27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the embroidered girdle of the ephod.

28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the embroidered girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.

29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel on the breastplate of judgment upon his heart

(The place of love. See vv.9,10, and 21, and note the repetition of the word heart for emphasis.)

when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually.

30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the LORD; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.

(No command of God to make these. Only told to put [nathan, to give] them in the breastplate, i.e. into the bag of the breastplate [cp. v.26 and 16, also 39:9 and 19]. This bag was a doubled part, and the Urim and Thummim were probably two precious stones which were drawn out as a lot to give Yahaveh's judgment. "The lot is cast into the lap [Heb. bosom]; but the whole judgment thereof is Yahaveh" [Prov. 16:33]. Bosom here put for the clothing or covering over it [cp. Ex. 4:6,7. Ruth 4:16. Chek = bosom = any hollow thing, as of a chariot, 1 Kings 22:35]. The Heb. Urim and Thummim mean "lights" and "perfections". Probably these are the plurals of majesty, the sing. "light" [being put for that which is brought to light, i.e. guilt] and "perfection" [put for moral perfection, i.e. innocence]. Thus these two placed in the "bag", and one drawn out, would give the judicial decision [the name connected with the breastplate, cp. v.15 above], which would be "of Yahaveh". Hence, the breastplate itself was known as "the breastplate of judgment" [v.15], because, by that, Yahaveh's judgment was obtained whenever it was needed. Hence, when the land was divided "by lot" [Num. 26:55 &c.], Eleazar, the high priest, must be present [Num. 34:17, cp. 27:21. Josh. 17:4]. When he would decide the lot "came up" [Josh. 18:11]; "came forth" [Josh.19:1]; "came out" [Josh. 19:17]: i.e. "out", or "forth" from the bag of the ephod. In Ezra 2:61-63 & Neh.7:63-65, no judgment could be given unless the high priest was present with the breastplate, with its bag, with the lots of Urim and Thummim, which gave Yahaveh's decision, "guilty" or "innocent", "yes" or "no". The Heb. for lot is always grl = a stone, except in Deut.32:9, 1 Chron. 16:18 and Ps. 105:11, where it is hbel = a measuring line, put for the inheritance so measured. In Josh. 13:6; 23:4. Ezek. 45:1; 47:22; 48:29, it is naphal, to fall, put for the inheritance which falls to one from any cause. See all the passages where the Urim and Thummim are mentioned: Ex. 28:30. Lev. 8:8. Deut. 33:8. Num. 27:21. 1 Sam. 28:6. Ezra 2:63. Neh. 7:65, and cp. especially the notes on Num. 26:55, and 1 Sam. 14:41.)

31 And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue;

32 And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the middle thereof. It shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of a jacket of mail, that it be not rent.

(To enable the hand of the High Priest to be put into the bag to draw out the Urm or Thmmim. Cp. vv.16 & 26, also 39:9,19.)

33 And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue and of purple and of scarlet round about the hem thereof, and bells of gold between them round about:

34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.

35 And it shall be upon Aaron when he ministers; and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD and when he cometh out, that he die not.

36 And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold and engrave upon it, like the engravings of a signet: HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

(Here it was worn only on the forehead of the high priest; but in the Millennial days it will be worn even on the bells of the horses, Zech. 14:20,21. Cp. Rev. 19:11-14; 14:20.)

37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the miter; upon the forefront of the miter it shall be.

38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts. And it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.

(Notice these words, Christ is our Representative, we are holy in Him, and this "always".)

39 And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the miter of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.

40 And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.

41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them and consecrate them and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest's office.

(Again, to consecrate them is to install them into a office permanently. And to fill their hand means that you give them the authority and official power to do what they have to do. Remember the church and the state government are the same, the running of the affairs of the people was done by the priesthood at this time, as was their duties before the Lord.)

42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach.

43 And they shall be upon Aaron and upon his sons when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place, that they bear not iniquity and die. It shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.